DNA Barcoding: A Novel Tool for Observation of Biodiversity
Biological specimens, observations, and experimental data are connected with each other through the species name. Thus, species identification is not only a central process to recognize and describe biodiversity, it is a fundamental process to construct biodiversity monitoring databases. Despite the recently increased need for species identification in the field of biodiversity monitoring, ecological research, conservation biology, and political decision-making, the number of taxonomic experts who are able to make such identification is decreasing (Hopkins and Freckleton 2002). This situation requires a rapid, precise species identification system that enables nontaxonomists to identify numerous biological specimens.
KeywordsBiodiversity Monitoring Molecular Phylogenetic Tree Potential Distribution Range Phylogenetic Diversity Index Nuclear Internal Transcribe Space
We thank N. Utsuki, O. Kurashima, and members of Ito laboratory at the University of Tokyo for reviewing an early version of this chapter. We also thank the Ministry of the Environment, Japan for partial support from the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund of the Ministry of the Environment (D-1008) for our monitoring activity. Part of the work on DNA barcoding in Japan is supported by the GBIF Japan National Node, conducted within the framework of the National BioResource Project (NBRP), initiated and supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT).