Ultrasonic Wave for Fluid Flow
Ultrasonic velocity profilers (UVP) utilize a pulsed ultrasonic beam and the scattering of ultrasonic waves on tracer particles to obtain instantaneous velocity profiles. This chapter summarizes (1) basic characteristics of ultrasonic waves, their propagation, diffraction, inflection, reflection, transmission, interference, and scattering (Sect. 2.3); (2) the formation of pulsed ultrasonic beams (Sects. 2.4 and 2.5); (3) mode transformations between longitudinal and transversal (shear) waves used in flow measurements in pipes with thicker walls (Sect. 2.6); and (4) basics of ultrasonic transducers that generate ultrasonic beams are also explained (Sect. 2.7). All the explanations about ultrasonic waves given here help to understand the principles and configurations of UVP measurements and to distinguish the content that is further highlighted in comparison with other textbooks of ultrasonic physics or ultrasonic techniques.
KeywordsBeam formation Pulsed ultrasonic beam Ultrasonic transducer Ultrasonic wave
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