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Comparative Primate Molecular Cytogenetics: Revealing Ancestral Genomes, Marker Order, and Evolutionary New Centromeres

  • Roscoe Stanyon
  • Nicoletta Archidiacono
  • Mariano Rocchi
Chapter
Part of the Primatology Monographs book series (PrimMono)

Abstract

In this review, we focus on the cytogenetic level of primate genome organization: chromosomes and karyotypes. Reconstructing the genome of ancestors is an obligatory goal of comparative primate cytogenetics. Cytogenetic comparison between species has a long history, going back to the early decades of the last century. Classical primate cytogeneticists provided basic data on the number of chromosomes, their size, and the relative position of the centromere of many primate species. Chromosome banding showed the high level of conservation among humans, apes, and monkeys, but establishing chromosomal homology between distantly related species or species characterized by rapid chromosomal evolution remained speculative until the advent of molecular cytogenetics. Chromosome painting soon resolved problems of accurately determining chromosomal homology. Painting probes could easily map all the translocation between primate species but did not provide information on intrachromosomal rearrangements. Then, FISH with cloned DNA provided high-resolution cytogenetic comparisons of marker order along chromosomes. Results revealed that centromere shifts (“evolutionary new centromere” ENC) are an important process in modifying primate genomes on a par with translocations and inversions. Comparison between ENC and clinical neocentromeres shows that evolutionary perspectives can provide compelling underlying explicative grounds for contemporary genomic phenomena.

Keywords

World Monkey Chromosome Painting Diploid Number Ancestral Genome Molecular Cytogenetic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

BACs

Bacterial artificial chromosomes

BES

Bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences

BLAST

Basic local alignment search tool

CAR

Contiguous ancestral regions

ChIP

Chromatin immunoprecipitation

DOP-PCR

Degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR

ENC

Evolutionary new centromere

FACS

Fluorescence-activated cell sorter

FISH

Fluorescent in situ hybridization DNA

PAC

P1 artificial chromosomes

SB

Synteny block

WCP

Whole chromosome paints

YAC

Yeast artificial chromosomes

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Copyright information

© Springer 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roscoe Stanyon
    • 1
  • Nicoletta Archidiacono
    • 2
  • Mariano Rocchi
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Anthropology, Department of Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Genetics and MicrobiologyUniversity of BariBariItaly

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