Genome Structure and Primate Evolution

  • Yoko Satta
Part of the Primatology Monographs book series (PrimMono)


Sequences of the entire human genome reveal a relative richness in structure with repetitive elements, tandem repeats, inverted repeats, and palindrome structures. Focusing on structure, the evolution of X and Y chromosomes in primates is reviewed here, and the relationship between gene expression and gene structure on autosomes is explored. In a four-stratum scenario of mammalian sex chromosome evolution, a region of exceptionally low sequence divergence has been identified, and the reasons for this low sequence divergence are presented here. In addition, the construction of palindromes on the human Y chromosome is discussed in relationship to the emergence of genes in the male-specific region on the Y chromosome. Based on these observations, six of eight palindromes on the human Y chromosome are considered to have formed before the divergence of Old World monkeys and hominoids. The relationship between gene expression patterns and copy number variation illustrates the role of negative selection in the retention of high copy number to maintain the coordination of gene expression in a network of gene expression.


Copy Number Variation Repetitive Element Segmental Duplication Duplication Rate International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





Amylase 1




CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase


Copy number variation


Chimpanzee-specific palindrome 1


Deleted in azoospermia




Human (Homo sapiens) Y chromosome


Heat-shock transcription factor


Kallman syndrome


Long interspersed elements


Major histocompatibility complex


Million years


New World monkeys


Old World monkeys


Pseudo-autosomal region 1


Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Y chromosome


RNA-binding motif


Short interspersed elements


Variable charge


X Kell blood-related



The author thanks Drs. Mineyo Iwase and Hielim Kim for their help in the analysis and discussion. The findings presented here are from research supported in part by a grant (16107001) from the Japan Science Promotion Society (JSPS) and in part by a grant (17018032) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).


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Copyright information

© Springer 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Evolutionary Studies of BiosystemsThe Graduate University for Advanced StudiesHayamaJapan

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