A decade ago, the first reports of the human draft genome were simultaneously published in Nature from the international Human Genome Project (International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium 2001) and in Science from the company Celera Genomics (Venter et al. 2001). Since the milestone of the human genome, genome projects of many organisms have been proposed, undertaken, and achieved in the past decade. These organisms include the mouse (Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium 2002), rat (Rat Genome Sequencing Project Consortium 2004), dog (Lindblad-Toh et al. 2005), chimpanzee (Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium 2005), rhesus macaque (Rhesus Macaque Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium 2007), marsupial (Mikkelsen et al. 2007), and, more recently, the Neanderthal (Green et al. 2010). As for primates, besides the chimpanzee and rhesus macaque, many other primate genomes have been sequenced, such as gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, baboon, marmoset, tarsier, galago, and lemur. New insights are thus required to think about how we should use the vast information of genome sequences for post-genome investigations. Now is the best time to establish standpoints for genomic primatology in these early days in several areas of genomic research. Here we introduce the angles from which we investigate primates with the aim of understanding what makes us human.