• Toshiro Kobayashi


Because steels offer advantages in both strength and economy in comparison with other materials, they are used overwhelmingly in many applications. It is well known that there is solid phase transformation in steels: the austenite (γ) to ferrite (α) transformation. This phase transformation has been used effectively for increasing both strength and toughness. It is the main objective of heat-treatment methods, which have been studied for a long time. Metallic materials are used mostly for structural applications because they have not only high strength but also excellent toughness compared to other materials. Toughness can be considered straightforwardly as sensitivity or resistance to fracture. Generally, toughness will be degraded when strength is increased, that is, there is a trade-off between toughness and strength of materials.


Martensitic Transformation Dual Phase Steel Maraging Steel Trip Steel Lower Bainite 
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© Springer Japan 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshiro Kobayashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Toyohashi University of TechnologyToyohashi AichiJapan

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