All water below ground is called groundwater or subsurface water. Groundwater lies in both saturated and unsaturated states in strata and soils, and its movement is slow. Groundwater originates from precipitation (e.g., rainfall and snow) as a process of natural recharge in the hydrologic cycle.
In this chapter, first the physical properties of water are reviewed as fundamentals of groundwater hydraulics. Then, the concepts of porous media and flow characteristics of groundwater are introduced as models. The state of the soil moisture, aquifer systems, the system of groundwater in the hydrologic cycle, and the definition of terms in groundwater are reviewd.
KeywordsSurface Tension Porous Medium Rock Mass Groundwater Flow Representative Elementary Volume
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