Introduction to Groundwater and Aquifer System

  • Kuniaki Sato
  • Yoshiaki Iwasa


All water below ground is called groundwater or subsurface water. Groundwater lies in both saturated and unsaturated states in strata and soils, and its movement is slow. Groundwater originates from precipitation (e.g., rainfall and snow) as a process of natural recharge in the hydrologic cycle.

In this chapter, first the physical properties of water are reviewed as fundamentals of groundwater hydraulics. Then, the concepts of porous media and flow characteristics of groundwater are introduced as models. The state of the soil moisture, aquifer systems, the system of groundwater in the hydrologic cycle, and the definition of terms in groundwater are reviewd.


Surface Tension Porous Medium Rock Mass Groundwater Flow Representative Elementary Volume 


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  2. Scheideger A. E. (1960) The physics of flow through porous media. 3rd edn. University of Toronto Press, Tronto, pp 5–8Google Scholar
  3. Smullyan R. M., Fitting M. (1996) Set theory and the continuum problem. Oxford Scientific Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 14–25MATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kuniaki Sato
    • 1
  • Yoshiaki Iwasa
    • 2
  1. 1.Geosphere Research InstituteSaitama UniversitySaitamaJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Earth Science and TechnologyOsakaJapan

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