Mechanism of Brain Damage and Management of Severe Brain Injury Based on Laboratory Studies

  • Nariyuki Hayashi
  • Dalton W. Dietrich


Primary brain-injured tissue is difficult to survive, therefore, secondary brain injury mechanisms such as brain edema, brain ischemia, and reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) caused by elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) have been considered as treatment targets in the acute stage. The promoting factor of these pathophysiological changes, such as free radicals, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, excitatory amino acid levels, and high concentrations of intracellular Ca2+ have also been considered as treatment targets. This concept of brain injury mechanism has long been supported by many animal studies [1,12,13,16, 17, 18, 19,25].


Brain Edema Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Brain Damage Severe Brain Injury Secondary Brain Damage 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nariyuki Hayashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dalton W. Dietrich
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Nihon University Emergency Medical CenterTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Emergency and Critical Care MedicineNihon University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Neurological Surgery, Neurology and Cell Biology and AnatomyUniversity of Miami School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  4. 4.The Miami Project to Cure ParalysisMiamiUSA

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