• Nariyuki Hayashi
  • Dalton W. Dietrich


Secondary brain injuries such as brain edema, brain ischemia, and reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) caused by elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) have been considered as important treatment targets, because survival rates after primary brain injuries are low. Therefore, factors that promote these pathophysiological changes such as the presence of free radicals, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, excitatory amino acid levels, and high concentrations of intracellular Ca2+ have also been considered as treatment targets [1,16,17,19,20].This concept of brain injury mechanism has long been supported by many animal studies and various neuroprotection strategies have been studied.


Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Severe Head Injury Secondary Brain Injury Critical Head Injury Hypothermia Treatment 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nariyuki Hayashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dalton W. Dietrich
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Nihon University Emergency Medical CenterTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Emergency and Critical Care MedicineNihon University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Neurological Surgery, Neurology and Cell Biology and AnatomyUniversity of Miami School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  4. 4.The Miami Project to Cure ParalysisMiamiUSA

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