Global and Focal Cerebral Ischemia

  • Nariyuki Hayashi
  • Dalton W. Dietrich


The importance of small variations in brain temperature on ischemic outcome was first investigated in models of transient forebrain global ischemia [2]. These controlled studies followed preliminary observations in experiments in which only core (rectal) temperature was monitored and maintained (36.5°C) indicating that 1) ischemic CA1 hippocampal pathology commonly varied from one study to the next, 2) that rectal (core) and intraischemic brain temperature differed significantly, and 3) that in anesthetized rats, intraischemic brain temperature was commonly hypothermic. Thus, selectively decreasing intraischemic brain temperature to 30°–34°C protected the CA1 hippocampus and dorsolateral striatum [2,4]. In gerbils, a 2°C drop in body temperature provided 100% protection in the CA1 hippocampus [6]. Brain cooling during prolonged (30min) global ischemia also protected the cerebral cortex from histopathological damage [12]. In models of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), hypothermic protection has also been reported [9,13, 14, 15,22].


Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Global Ischemia Mild Hypothermia Cereb Blood Flow Forebrain Ischemia 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nariyuki Hayashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dalton W. Dietrich
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Nihon University Emergency Medical CenterTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Emergency and Critical Care MedicineNihon University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Neurological Surgery, Neurology and Cell Biology and AnatomyUniversity of Miami School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  4. 4.The Miami Project to Cure ParalysisMiamiUSA

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