• Nariyuki Hayashi
  • Dalton W. Dietrich


Inflammatory processes are believed to participate in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain and spinal cord injury (SCI) [4,9,11].Strategies that target inflammation after neurotrauma have been reported to improve outcome. Of interest to the present discussion is the fact that therapeutic hypothermia has been reported to reduce the accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) after cerebral ischemia and trauma [10,12,13]. In a study of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, postischemic hypothermia delayed neutrophil accumulation and microglial activation [6]. Following control cortical impact injury, Whalen and colleagues [12] reported that PMNL accumulation in the injured cortex after 4h was significantly decreased in rats maintained at 32°C vs 39°C. Chatzipanteli and colleagues [2] have demonstrated that hypothermia (32°C) after moderate F-P brain injury also reduces the degree of PMNL accumulation in damaged areas at 3h and 3 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI).


Traumatic Brain Injury Spinal Cord Injury Therapeutic Hypothermia Control Cortical Impact Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Bethea JR, Castro M, Keane RW, Lee TT, Dietrich WD, Yezierski RP (1998) Traumatic spinal cord injury induces nuclear factor-kappaB activation. J Neurosci 18: 3251–3260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chatzipanteli K, Alonso O, Kraydieh S, Dietrich WD (2000) The import ance of posttraumatic brain temperature on the inflammatory response following parasagittal fluid percussion brain injur y. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 20:531–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chatzipanteli K, Yanagawa Y, Marcillo A, Kraydieh S, Yezierski RP, Dietrich WD (2000) Post-traumatic hypothermia reduces polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation following spinal cord injury in rats. J Neurotrauma 17:321–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clark RSB, Schiding JK, Kaczorowski SL, Marion DW, Kochanek PM (1994) Neutrophil accumulation after traumatic brain injury in rats: comparison of weight drop and controlled cortical impact models. J Neurotrauma 11:499–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hernandez LA, Grisham MB, Twohig B, Arfors KE, Harlan J, Granger DN (1987) Role of neutrophils in ischemia-rep erfusion induced microvascular injury. Am J Physiol 253:H699–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Inamasu J, Suga S, Sato S, Horigushi T, Akaji K, Manage K, Kawase T (2000) Post-ischemic hypothermia delayed neutrophil accumulation and microglial activation following transient focal ischemia in rats. J Neuroimmunol 109:66–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ishikawa T, Marsala M (1999) Hypothermia prevents biphasic glutamate release and corresponding neuronal degeneration after transient spinal cord ischemia in the rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol 19:199–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Means ED, Anderson OK (1983) Neuronophagia by leukocytes in experimental spinal cord injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42:707–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schoettle RJ, Kochanek PM, Magargee MJ, Uhl MW, Nemoto EM (1990) Early polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation correlates with the development of posttraumatic cerebral edema in rats. J Neurotrauma 7: 207–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Toyoda T, Suzuki S, Kaddell NF, Lee KS (1996) Intraischemic hypothermia attenuates neurophil infiltration in the rat neocortex after focal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Neurosurgery 39:1200–1205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Uhl MW, Biagas KV, Grundl PD, Barmada MA, Schiding JK, Nemoto EM, Kochanek PM (1994) Effects of neutropenia on edema, histology, and cerebral blood flow after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma 11:303–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Whalen MJ, Carlos TM, Clarke RS, Marion DW, DeKosky ST, Heineman S, Schiding JK, Memarzadeh F, Dixon CE, Kochanek PM (1997) The relationship be-tween brain temperature and neutrophil accumulation after traumatic brain injury in rats. Acta Neurochir 70:260–261Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Whalen MJ, Carlos TM, Clarke RS, Marion DW, DeKosky ST, Heineman S, Schiding JK, Memarzadeh F, Kochanek PM (1997) The effect of brain temperature on acute inflammation after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma 14:561–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nariyuki Hayashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dalton W. Dietrich
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Nihon University Emergency Medical CenterTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Emergency and Critical Care MedicineNihon University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Neurological Surgery, Neurology and Cell Biology and AnatomyUniversity of Miami School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  4. 4.The Miami Project to Cure ParalysisMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations