Therapeutic Hypothermia in Complicated Models of Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Nariyuki Hayashi
  • Dalton W. Dietrich


Clinical and experimental data emphasize the importance of secondary injury mechanisms contributing to traumatic outcome [1, 2, 3, 4,8]. Secondary injury mechanisms include a variety of systemic and intracranial processes including hypotension, hypoxia, ischemia, and hyperthermia, as well as intra cranial pressure. Secondary hypoxia caused by respiratory distress is a common consequence of head injury. It has been reported to occur in 45.6% of severely head-injured patients.


Traumatic Brain Injury Therapeutic Hypothermia Control Cortical Impact Intra Cranial Pressure Contusion Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Bramlett HM, Dietrich WD, Green E (1999) Secondary hypoxia following moderate fluid percussion brain injury in rats exacerbates sensorimotor and cognitive deficits. J Neur otrauma 16:1035–1047Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bramlett HM, Green EJ, Dietrich WD (1999) Exacerbation of cortical and hippocampal CA1 damage due to posttraumatic hypoxia following moderate fluid-percussion brain injury in rats. J Neurosurg 91:653–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen M, Clark RSB, Kochanek PM, Chen J, Schiding JK, Stetler RA, Simon RP, Graham SH (1998) 72-kDa heat shock protein and mRNA expression after controlled cortical impact injury with hypoxemia in rats. J Neurotrauma 15:171–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chestnut RM (1995) Secondary brain insults after head injury: clinical perspectives. New Horiz 3:366–375Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark RSB, Robertson CL, Dixon CE, Alexander HL, Graham SH, Safar PJ, Kochanek PM (1999) Effect of hypothermia after severe traumatic brain injury with secondary hypoxemia in rats. J Neuro trauma 15:864 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Matsushita Y, Bramlett HM, Alonso OF, Dietrich WD (2001) Posttraumatic hypothermia is neuroprotective in a model of traumatic brain injury complicated by a secondary hypoxic insult. Crit Care Med 29:2060–2066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mcintosh TK, Juhler M, Wieloch T (1998) Novel pharmacologic strategies in the treatment of experimental traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 15:731–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nakamura T, Miyamoto O, Yanagami S-I, Hayashida Y, Itano T, Nagao S (1999) Influence of rewarming conditions after hypothermia in gerbils with transient forebrain ischemia. J Neurosurg 91:114–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Statler KD, Jenkins LW, Dixon CE, Clark RS, Marion DW, Kochanek PM (2001) The simple model versus the super model: translating experimental traumatic brain injury to the bedside. J Neurotrauma 18:1195–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yamamoto M, Marmarou CR, Stiefel MF, Beaumont A, Marmarou A (1999) Neuroprotective effect of hypothermia on neuronal injury in diffuse traumatic brain injury coupled with hypoxia and hypotension. J Neurotrauma 16:487–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nariyuki Hayashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dalton W. Dietrich
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Nihon University Emergency Medical CenterTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Emergency and Critical Care MedicineNihon University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Neurological Surgery, Neurology and Cell Biology and AnatomyUniversity of Miami School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  4. 4.The Miami Project to Cure ParalysisMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations