Advertisement

The Crop-Raiders of the Sacred Hill

  • Kimberley Jane Hockings
Part of the Primatology Monographs book series

Abstract

The chimpanzees of Bossou (Pan troglodytes verus) have been forced to adapt ecologically and behaviorally to the various costs and benefits of living in a human-dominated environment. The chimpanzees frequently feed on cultivated foods; however, significant variation exists in the importance of such foods in the chimpanzees’ diet. Certain crops are mostly fallback foods, whereas others are preferred food items and are taken according to their availability in orchards and fields. While engaged in crop-raiding, the chimpanzees exhibit several behavioral adaptations, namely, a decrease in vocalization levels and increases in the transportation of food and specific vigilance behavior. Adult males and adult male-only parties crop-raid more than other age- and sex-classes/compositions and are more likely to take risks by raiding in exposed environments with increased risk of human confrontation. The use of human crops also affects the sociosexual behavior of the chimpanzees: chimpanzees appear to share the fruits of their risky labors (crop-raiding) as a delayed food-for-sex strategy, which allows adult males to advertise prowess and enhance affiliative relationships with reproductively valuable females.

Keywords

Home Range Forest Edge Wild Food Wild Fruit Mango Fruit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

I wish to thank all the local assistants and Bossou villagers who helped during this research period. This work was supported by a Stirling University studentship, a postdoctoral research grant from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal, and MEXT grant #20002001, JSPS-HOPE, and JSPS-gCOE (A06, Biodiversity).

Supplementary material

Papaya Sharing - Kim Hocking (WMV file 1733 kb)

References

  1. Aureli F, de Waal FBM (1997) Inhibition of social behaviour in chimpanzees under high-density conditions. Am J Primatol 41:213–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Biro D, Inoue-Nakamura N, Tonooka R, Yamakoshi G, Sousa C, Matsuzawa T (2003) Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees: evidence from field experiments. Anim Cogn 6:213–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boesch C (1991a) The effect of leopard predation on grouping patterns in forest chimpanzees. Behaviour 117:220–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boesch C (1991b) Teaching among wild chimpanzees. Anim Behav 41:530–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boesch C, Boesch-Achermann H (2000) The chimpanzees of the Taï forest. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark AP (1993) Rank differences in the production of vocalizations by wild chimpanzees as a function of social context. Am J Primatol 31:159–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de Nijs G (1995) The chimpanzees of the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. Pan Africa News 2:1Google Scholar
  8. Gilby IC (2006) Meat sharing among the Gombe chimpanzees: harassment and reciprocal exchange. Anim Behav 71:953–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gippoliti S, Sousa C (2004) The chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, as an ‘umbrella’ species for conservation in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: opportunities and constraints (abstract). Folia Primatol 75:385–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Greengrass E (2000) The sudden decline of a community of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park: a supplement. Pan Africa News 7:25–26Google Scholar
  11. Hernandez-Aguilar AR, Moore J, Pickering TR (2007) Savanna chimpanzees use tools to harvest the underground storage organs of plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19210–19213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hill CM (1997) Crop-raiding by wild vertebrates: the farmer’s perspective in an agricultural community in western Uganda. Int J Pest Manag 43:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hockings KJ (2007) Human-chimpanzee coexistence at Bossou, the Republic of Guinea: a chimpanzee perspective. PhD Thesis, University of Stirling, StirlingGoogle Scholar
  14. Hockings K, Humle T (2009) Best practice guidelines for the prevention and mitigation of conflict between humans and great apes. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), GlandGoogle Scholar
  15. Hockings K, Anderson J, Matsuzawa T (2006) Road crossing in chimpanzees: a risky business. Curr Biol 16:668–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hockings KJ, Humle T, Anderson JR, Biro D, Sousa C, Ohashi G, Matsuzawa T (2007) Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit. PLoS ONE 2(9):e886. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000886 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Humle T (2003a) Chimpanzees and crop raiding in West Africa. In: Kormos R, Boesch C, Bakarr MI, Butynski TM (eds) West African Chimpanzees. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge, pp 147–155Google Scholar
  18. Kortlandt A (1986) The use of stone tools by wild-living chimpanzees and earliest hominids. J Hum Evol 15:77–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Laden G, Wrangham R (2005) The rise of the hominids as an adaptive shift in fallback foods: plant underground storage organs (USOs) and australopith origins. J Hum Evol 49:482–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marshall AJ, Wrangham RW (2007) Evolutionary consequences of fallback foods. Int J Primatol 28:1219–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matsuzawa T (2006a) Bossou: 30 years. Pan Africa News 13:16–19Google Scholar
  22. Matsuzawa T (2007) Assessment of the planted trees in Green Corridor Project. Pan Africa News 14:27–29Google Scholar
  23. Mitani JC, Nishida T (1993) Contexts and social correlates of long-distance calling by male chimpanzees. Anim Behav 45:735–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mitani J, Watts D (2001) Why do chimpanzees hunt and share meat? Anim Behav 61:915–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Naughton-Treves L, Treves A, Chapman C, Wrangham R (1998) Temporal patterns of crop-raiding by primates: linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest. J Appl Ecol 35:596–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nishida T (2008) Why were guava trees cut down in Mahale Park? The question of exterminating all introduced plants. Pan Africa News 15:12–14Google Scholar
  27. Nishida T, Hiraiwa-Hasegawa M, Hasegawa T, Takahata Y (1985) Group extinction and female transfer in wild chimpanzees in the Mahale National Park, Tanzania. Z Tierpsychol 67:284–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pruetz JD (2002) Competition between savanna chimpanzees and humans in southeastern Senegal (abstract). Am J Phys Anthropol 34:128Google Scholar
  29. Reynolds V (2005a) The chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest: ecology, behaviour, and conservation. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reynolds V (2005b) The problem of snares. In Reynolds V (ed) The chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest: ecology, behaviour and conservation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 164–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sakura O (1994) Factors affecting party size and composition of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea. Int J Primatol 15:167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sugiyama Y (2004) Demographic parameters and life history of chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. Am J Phys Anthropol 124:154–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Takahata Y, Hiraiwa-Hasegawa M, Takasaki H, Nyundo R (1985) Newly acquired feeding habits among the chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Hum Evol 1:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Takasaki H (1983) Mahale chimpanzees taste mangoes—toward acquisition of a new food item? Primates 24: 273–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Teleki G (1973) The predatory behaviour of wild chimpanzees. Bucknell University Press, LewisburgGoogle Scholar
  36. van Lawick-Goodall J (1972) A preliminary report on expressive movements and communication in the Gombe Stream chimpanzees. In: Dolhinow P (ed) Primate patterns. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp 25–84Google Scholar
  37. Wilson ML, Hauser MD, Wrangham RW (2001) Does participation in intergroup conflict depend on numerical assessment, range location, or rank for wild chimpanzees? Anim Behav 61:1203–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yamakoshi G (2005) What is happening on the border between humans and chimpanzees? Wildlife conservation in West African rural landscapes. In: Hiramatsu K (ed) Coexistence with nature in a ‘Globalising’ World: field science perspectives. Proceedings of the 7th Kyoto University International Symposium, 2005. Kyoto University, Kyoto, pp 91–97Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Human SciencesNew University of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyStirling UniversityStirlingUK

Personalised recommendations