Effect of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on the Development of Macaque Socialization

  • Takamasa Koyama
  • Akiko Nakagami
Part of the Primatology Monographs book series (PrimMono)


More than a decade has passed since publication of the book Our Stolen Future by Colborn and colleagues in 1996. Yet traces of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) persist, and there has been no decrease in their concentrations worldwide. We have been investigating the effect of perinatal exposure to EDCs such as dioxin, bisphenol A (BPA), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on mother–infant interactions and peer relationships of two species of macaques (mulatta and fascicularis) by analyzing their observed behaviors. We found fewer effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) than were expected but serious effects of BPA and PCBs. BPA prevents behavioral sex differentiation in infants, and PCBs suppress their social initiative in mother–infant and peer interactions. These studies prove that the observation paradigm for the analysis of mother and infant behaviors is a helpful and practical method to assess the subtle influence of EDCs on the brains of higher primates.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Canonical Discriminant Analysis Visual Exploration Infant Interaction Social Exploration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Our studies were partially supported by KAKENHI [Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), 14104020] to Professor Y. Yoshikawa and by the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) program of the Japan Science and Technology Agency. We would like to express our gratitude to Elsevier, Editorial Board of International Journal of Comparative Psychology, and Wiley-Blackwell for permission to reproduce all the figures in this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyJapan Women’s UniversityKanagawaJapan

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