Molecular Behavioral Research in Great Apes
Since the initial reports linking human “novelty seeking” to the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) locus (Benjamin et al. 1996), there have been multiple studies examining associations between human personality traits and specific genotypes of neurotransmitter-related proteins (Ebstein 2006) (see Chap. 10). Recently, research on the genetic bases of personality traits has been extended to studies of within- and between-species studies of nonhuman primates. Personality is defined as those characteristics of individuals that describe and account for temporally stable patterns of affect, cognition, and behavior. As is the case in humans, these individual differences have a biological and experiential basis (Gosling 2008).
KeywordsAndrogen Receptor Nonhuman Primate Rhesus Macaque Human Personality Japanese Macaque
We are indebted to the late Professor O. Takenaka, Kyoto University, for providing samples. We are grateful to T. Matsuzawa, T. Udono, T. Ochiai, S. Hirata, and the raters at Ueno Zoo, Higashiyama Zoo, Fukuoka Zoo, Wanpark Kochi Animal Land, Hiroshima City Asa Zoological Park, Kyoto Municipal Zoo, Tama Zoological Park, Itouzu no Mori Zoological Park, Japan Monkey Centre, Ikeda Zoo, Kyoto University Primate Research Institute, Great Ape Research Institute, and Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto. We also thank S. Kawamura, E. Inoue, Y. Murayama and M.J. Adams for their invaluable comments to the manuscript. This study was supported financially in part by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) with a Grant-in-aid for Science Research (B: #18310152 and #21310150 to M.I.M.) and the Global Center of Excellence Program “Formation of a Strategic Base for Biodiversity and Evolutionary Research: from Genome to Ecosystem”, and the Cooperation Research Program of the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University.
- Cantor N, Sanderson CA (1999) Life task participation and wellbeing: the importance of taking part in daily life. In: Kahneman D, Diener E, Schwarz N (eds) Well-being: the foundations of hedonic psychology. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp 425–451Google Scholar
- Inoue-Murayama M, Adachi S, Mishima N, Mitani H, Takenaka O, Terao K, Hayasaka I, Ito S, Murayama Y (2002) Variation of variable number of tandem repeat sequences in the 3′-untranslated region of primate dopamine transporter genes that affects reporter gene expression. Neurosci Lett 334:206–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Inoue-Murayama M, Mishima N, Hayasaka I, Ito S, Murayama Y (2006) Divergence of ape and human monoamine oxidase A gene promoters: comparative analysis of polymorphisms, tandem repeat structures and transcriptional activities on reporter gene expression. Neurosci Lett 405:207–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Inoue-Murayama M, Inoue E, Watanabe K, Takenaka A, Murayma Y (2010) Box I: behavior-related candidate genes. In: Nakagawa N, Sugiura H, Nakamichi N (eds) The Japanese macaques. Springer, Tokyo, pp 285–293Google Scholar
- Spinelli S, Schwandt ML, Lindell SG, Newman TK, Heilig M, Suomi SJ, Higley JD, Goldman D, Barr CS (2007) Association between the recombinant human serotonin transporter linked promoter region polymorphism and behavior in rhesus macaques during a separation paradigm. Dev Psychopathol 19:977–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Terracciano A, Sanna S, Uda M, Deiana B, Usala G, Busonero F, Maschio A, Scally M, Patriciu N, Chen W-M, Distel MA, Slagboom EP, Boomsma DI, Villafuerte S, Śliwerska E, Burmeister M, Amin N, Janssens ACJW, van Duijn CM, Schlessinger D, Abecasis GR, Costa PT Jr (2008) Genome-wide association scan for five major dimensions of personality. Mol Psychiatry. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.113Google Scholar
- Walum H, Westberg L, Henningsson S, Neiderhiser JM, Reiss D, Igl W, Ganiban JM, Spotts EL, Pedersen NL, Eriksson E, Lichtenstein P (2008) Genetic variation in the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (AVPR1A) associates with pair-bonding behavior in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:14153–14156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wendland JR, Lesch KP, Newman TK, Timme A, Gachot-Neveu H, Thierry B, Suomi SJ (2006) Differential functional variability of serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase a genes in macaque species displaying contrasting levels of aggression-related behavior. Behav Genet 36:163–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar