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Morphological Characteristics, Growth, and Aging in Japanese Macaques

  • Yuzuru Hamada
  • Ayumi Yamamoto
Part of the Primatology Monographs book series (PrimMono, volume 0)

Abstract

The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) is one species of the genus Macaca, which is now distributed in lower-latitude areas in Asia, excepting the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus, which is distributed to Northwestern Africa). The genus Macaca is phylogenetically close to mangabeys and baboons (tribe Papionini; Fleagle 1999), has a medium-sized stout body, and lives either arboreally or terrestrially. According to Delson (1980), the geographical evolutionary history of Macaca is as follows: the genus arose 7–8 million years ago (MYA) in northern Africa, and the ancestor migrated to Eurasia via the Middle East around 5–6 MYA. Although the immigrants to southern Europe remained there for a long time, all of them are considered to be close to the extant Barbary macaque, that is, a conspecific or closely related species; they became extinct several 10,000 years ago. Other populations dispersed to Asia and flourished adaptationally but, because of the paucity of fossils, their exact evolutionary history has not yet been elucidated. On the basis of the supposed macaque fossil Macaca palaeoindicus (2.5–3.0 MYA) from India, the genus Macaca migrated from the Middle East to India along the seashore (southern course). However, a northern course cannot be denied because the majority of macaque fossils excavated have been from China or northern Vietnam. In particular, fossils from Yushe, Shanxi Province (ca. 5.5 MYA) suggest that a macaque ancestor migrated from Europe via Central Asia to China and then dispersed to Southeast and South Asia (Takai 2005).

Keywords

Rhesus Macaque Mating Season Japanese Macaque Cage Group Trunk Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are indebted to the editors, Drs. N. Nakagawa and M. Nakamichi, for their suggestions and revision. This study is financially supported by funds from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Nos. 16405014, 20255006).

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Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Evolutionary Morphology SectionDepartment of Evolution and Phylogeny, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto UniversityInuyamaJapan

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