Topic 3: Toward Understanding the Role of Diet in Host–Parasite Interactions: The Case for Japanese Macaques

Part of the Primatology Monographs book series (PrimMono, volume 0)


Central to understanding animal ecology are interactions between consumers and the consumed, whether predator–prey, herbivore–plant, or mycophage–mushroom. A wealth of information exists describing just such relationships (Stephens and Krebs 1986; Stephens et al. 2007). The first systematic and naturalistic study of primates (Alouatta palliata: Carpenter 1934) reported a partial list of items consumed by howler monkeys. Since then, countless food lists have been compiled for all groups of primates (for examples, see Richard 1985, table 5.1, pp 164–165). For example, we now have a detailed picture of the diversity of items consumed by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) across Japan, from the southern limit of their range on Yakushima Island (Maruhashi 1980; Agetsuma 1995a,b; Hill 1997; Yumoto et al. 1998; Domingo-Roura and Yamagiwa 1999; Hanya et al. 2003; Hanya 2004; Tarnaud and Yamagiwa 2008; MacIntosh, unpublished data) through their northern limit on the Shimokita Peninsula (Izawa and Nishida 1963; Suzuki 1965; Nakagawa et al. 1996; Nakayama and Matsuoka 1998; Nakayama et al. 1999; see also Chap. 5). Although such lists are important, taken alone they are uninformative from a bioenergetics perspective (Nakagawa et al. 1996). Although complementary work examining the nutritional and energetic qualities of food items with respect to metabolic requirements has been and is being undertaken in Japan (Iwamoto 1974, 1982, 1988; Nakagawa 1989a,b, 1997a; Yokota 1989; Soumah and Yokota 1991; Nakayama et al. 1999; Wakibara et al. 2001; Hanya et al. 2007; Tsuji et al. 2008; see also Chaps. 5 and 14), primate nutritional ecology remains in its infancy (Robbins and Hohmann 2006).


Species Richness Parasitic Infection Japanese Macaque Howler Monkey Nutritional Ecology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Charmalie Nahallage and Sachi Sri Kanta for their contribution to the development of the Japanese macaque diet and antiparasitic item database. Their efforts were instrumental in getting this project off the ground. We also thank Jean-Baptiste Leca, Annemarie MacIntosh, Hideki Sugiura, and Naofumi Nakagawa for their most helpful comments and suggestions regarding earlier versions of this manuscript. A.J.J.M. thanks Fumihiro Kanou, Takaaki Kaneko, and especially Kanako MacIntosh for assistance in translating Japanese texts. A.J.J.M.’s doctoral research is financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan.


  1. Agetsuma N (1995a) Foraging strategies of Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Int J Primatol 16:595–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agetsuma N (1995b) Foraging synchrony in a group of Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Folia Primatol 64:167–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altizer S (2006) Seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Ecol Lett 9:467–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ando K, Sato Y, Miura K, Matsuoka H, Chinzei Y, Iwanaka A (1994) The occurrence of Bertiella studeri (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, from Mie Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Parasitol 43:211–213Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1974) List of plant foods of Japanese macaques at Boso Hill. Nihonzaru 1:176–192 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. Bernays EA, Singer MS (2005) Taste alteration and endoparasites. Nature (Lond) 436:476–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carpenter CR (1934) A field study of the behavior and social relations of howling monkeys. Comp Psychol Monogr 10:1–168Google Scholar
  8. Coley PD, Aide TM (1991) Comparison of herbivory and plant defenses in temperate and tropical broad leaved forests. In: Price PW, Lewinsohn TM, Fernandes GW, Benson WW (eds) Plant–animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. Wiley, New York, pp 25–49Google Scholar
  9. Cousins D, Huffman MA (2002) Medicinal properties in the diet of gorillas: an ethnopharmacological evaluation. Afr Study Monogr 23:65–89Google Scholar
  10. Dagg C (2009) Ishoku Dougen: the medicinal use of plants and clays by wild Japanese macaques. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, AthensGoogle Scholar
  11. Domingo-Roura X, Yamagiwa J (1999) Monthly and diurnal variations in food choice by Macaca fuscata yakui during the major fruiting season at Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates 40:525–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duke JA, Ayensu ES (1985) Medicinal plants of China. Reference Publications, AlgonacGoogle Scholar
  13. Forbey JS, Harvey AL, Huffman MA, Provenza FD, Sullivan R, Tasdemir D (2009) Exploitation of secondary metabolites by animals: a response to homeostatic challenges. Integr Comp Biol 49:314–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Freeland WJ (1980) Mangabey (Cercocebus albigena) movement patterns in relation to food availability and fecal contamination. Ecology 61:1297–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Freeland WJ, Janzen DH (1974) Strategies in herbivory by mammals: the role of plant secondary compounds. Am Nat 108:269–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaston KJ (2000) Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature (Lond) 405:220–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gauld ID, Gaston KJ, Janzen DH (1992) Plant allelochemicals, tritrophic interactions and the anomalous diversity of tropical parasitoids: the “nasty” host hypothesis. Oikos 65:353–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gilbert KA (1997) Red howling monkey use of specific defecation sites as a parasite avoidance strategy. Anim Behav 54:451–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Go M (2010) Seasonal changes in food resource distribution and feeding sites selected by Japanese macaques on Koshima Islet, Japan. Primates 51:149–158Google Scholar
  20. Gotoh S (2000) Regional differences in the infection of wild Japanese macaques by gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Primates 41:291–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hanya G (2004) Diet of a Japanese macaque troop in the coniferous forest of Yakushima. Int J Primatol 25:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanya G, Noma N, Agetsuma N (2003) Altitudinal and seasonal variations in the diet of Japanese macaques in Yakushima. Primates 44:51–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hanya G, Kiyono M, Takafumi H, Tsujino R, Agetsuma N (2007) Mature leaf selection of Japanese macaques: effects of availability and chemical content. J Zool 273:140–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hart BL (1988) Biological basis of the behavior of sick animals. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 12:123–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hart BL (1990) Behavioral adaptations to pathogens and parasites: 5 strategies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 14:273–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hart BL (2005) The evolution of herbal medicine: behavioural perspectives. Anim Behav 70:975–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hausfater G, Meade BJ (1982) Alternation of sleeping groves by yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) as a strategy for parasite avoidance. Primates 23:287–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hernandez AD, MacIntosh AJ, Huffman MA (2009) Primate parasite ecology: patterns and predictions from an on-going study of Japanese macaques. In: Huffman MA, Chapman CA (eds) Primate parasite ecology: the dynamics and study of host–parasite relationships. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 387–402Google Scholar
  29. Hill DA (1997) Seasonal variation in the feeding behavior and diet of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) in lowland forest of Yakushima. Am J Primatol 43:305–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Horii Y, Imada I, Yanagida T, Usui M, Mori A (1982) Parasite changes and their influence on the body weight of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) of the Koshima troop. Primates 23:416–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huffman MA (1984) Plant food and feeding behaviour of Japanese monkeys in Arashiyama: annual change of plant food. Arashiyama Nat Hist Inst Rep 3:55–65 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  32. Huffman MA (1997) Current evidence for self-medication in primates: a multidisciplinary perspective. Yearb Phys Anthropol 40:171–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Huffman MA (2006) Primate self-medication. In: Campbell C, Fuentes A, MacKinnon K, Panger M, Bearders SK (eds) Primates in perspective. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 677–690Google Scholar
  34. Huffman MA, Caton JM (2001) Self-induced increase of gut motility and the control of parasitic infections in wild chimpanzees. Int J Primatol 22:329–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huffman MA, Seifu M (1989) Observations on the illness and consumption of a possibly medicinal plant Vernonia amygdalina (Del), by a wild chimpanzee in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Primates 30:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huffman MA, Gotoh S, Izutsu D, Koshimizu K, Kalunde MS (1993) Further observations on the use of the medicinal plant, Vernonia amygdalina (Del) by a wild chimpanzee, its possible effect on parasite load, and its phytochemistry. Afr Study Monogr 14:227–240Google Scholar
  37. Huffman MA, Page JE, Sukhdeo MVK, Gotoh S, Kalunde MS, Chandrasiri T, Towers GHN (1996) Leaf-swallowing by chimpanzees: a behavioral adaptation for the control of strongyle nematode infections. Int J Primatol 17:475–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hutchings MR, Gordon IJ, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F (2001) Sheep avoidance of faeces-contaminated patches leads to a trade-off between intake rate of forage and parasitism in subsequent foraging decisions. Anim Behav 62:955–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hutchings MR, Athanasiadou S, Kyriazakis I, Gordon IJ (2003) Can animals use foraging behaviour to combat parasites? Proc Nutr Soc 62:361–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hutchings MR, Judge J, Gordon IJ, Athanasiadou S, Kyriazakis I (2006) Use of trade-off theory to advance understanding of herbivore–parasite interactions. Mammal Rev 36:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Itagaki T, Kinoshita S, Aoki M, Itoh N, Saeki H, Sato N, Uetsuki J, Izumiyama S, Yagita K, Endo T (2005) Genotyping of Giardia intestinalis from domestic and wild animals in Japan using glutamate dehydrogenase gene sequencing. Vet Parasitol 133:283–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Itani J (1956) The food habits of the Japanese monkeys in Takasakiyama. Primates Res Group 3:1-14 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  43. Itoh K, Oku Y, Okamoto M, Ohbayashi M, Kitamura Y, Shibahara T (1988) Helminth parasites of the Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata fuscata, in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Vet Res 36:235–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Iwamoto T (1974) A bioeconomic study on a provisioned troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) at Koshima Islet, Miyazaki. Primates 15:241–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Iwamoto T (1982) Food and nutritional condition of free ranging Japanese monkeys on Koshima Islet during winter. Primates 23:153–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Iwamoto T (1988) Food and energetics of provisioned wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). In: Fa JE, Southwick CH (eds) Ecology and behavior of food-enhanced primate groups. Alan R Liss, New York, pp 79–94Google Scholar
  47. Izawa K, Nishida T (1963) Monkeys living in the northern limits of their distribution. Primates 4:67–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jaman MF, Takemoto H, Huffman MA (2010) The foraging behavior of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a forested enclosure: effects of nutrient composition, energy and its seasonal variation on the consumption of natural plant foods. Curr Zool 56:198–208Google Scholar
  49. Janzen DH (1978) Complications in interpreting the chemical defenses of trees against tropical arboreal plant-eating vertebrates. In: Montgomery GM (ed) The ecology of arboreal folivores. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC, pp 73–84Google Scholar
  50. Jisaka M, Ohigashi H, Takegawa K, Hirota M, Irie R, Huffman MA, Koshimizu K (1993) Steroid glucosides from Vernonia amygdalina, a possible chimpanzee medicinal plant. Phytochemistry 34:409–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kagei N, Hasegawa H (1974) On the fecal examination against helminthic ova of the Japanese monkeys, Macaca fuscata (Blyth, 1875), from Takasakiyama, Oita Prefecture: problems as parasitic zoonoses. Bull Inst Public Health 23:234–238Google Scholar
  52. Kimura K (1988) Forest utilization for food resources of Japanese monkeys at Koshima islet. Nagoya Gakuin Univ Natural Sciences and Humanities 25:25–50Google Scholar
  53. Kimura K, Kimura T (1991) Medicinal plants of Japan. Hoikusha, OsakaGoogle Scholar
  54. Kobayashi C, Hashimoto M, Nigi H, Fujimoto K, Inouye S, Sakaguchi M (1999) Parasite infection and Japanese cedar pollinosis in monkeys. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 67:93–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Koganezawa M (1983) Seasonal changes in food habits of Japanese monkeys Macaca fuscata in Nikko, Tochigi Prefecture. Mem Tochigi Pref Mus 1:83–94 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  56. Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H, Huffman MA (1994) Use of Vernonia amygdalina by wild chimpanzee: possible roles of its bitter and related constituents. Physiol Behav 56:1209–1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Krief S, Huffman MA, Sevenet T, Hladik CM, Grellier P, Loiseau PM, Wrangham RW (2006) Bioactive properties of plant species ingested by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. Am J Primatol 68:51–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krishnamani R, Mahaney WC (2000) Geophagy among primates: adaptive significance and ecological consequences. Anim Behav 59:899–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Levin DA (1976) Alkaloid-bearing plants: an ecological perspective. Am Nat 110:261–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lozano GA (1991) Optimal foraging theory: a possible role for parasites. Oikos 60:391–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lozano GA (1998) Parasitic stress and self-medication in wild animals. Adv Study Behav 27:291–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Machida M, Araki J, Koyama T, Kumada M, Horii Y, Imada I, Takasaka M, Honjo S, Matsubayashi K, Tiba T (1978) The life cycle of Streptopharagus pigmentatus (Nematoda, Spiruroidea) from the Japanese monkey. Bull Natl Sci Mus Ser A (Zool) 4:1–9Google Scholar
  63. Maruhashi T (1980) Feeding behavior and diet of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates 21:141–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McKey D (1974) Adaptive patterns in alkaloid physiology. Am Nat 108:305–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Muroyama Y, Kanamori H, Kitahara E (2006) Seasonal variation and sex differences in the nutritional status in two local populations of wild Japanese macaques. Primates 47:355–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nakagawa N (1989a) Bioenergetics of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan Island during winter. Primates 30:441–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nakagawa N (1989b) Feeding strategies of Japanese monkeys against deterioration of habitat quality. Primates 30:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nakagawa N (1997a) Determinants of the dramatic seasonal changes in the intake of energy and protein by Japanese monkeys in a cool temperate forest. Am J Primatol 41:267–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nakagawa N (1997b) Quantified food lists of the Japanese monkeys in Kinkazan Island. Primate Res 13:73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nakagawa N, Iwamoto T, Yokota T, Soumah AG (1996) Inter-regional and inter-seasonal variations of food quality in Japanese macaques: constraints of digestive volume and feeding time. In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG (eds) Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 207–234Google Scholar
  71. Nakayama Y, Matsuoka S (1998) Monkeys of Shimokita annual research report. Shimokita Peninsula Monkey Research Group 2:68–77 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  72. Nakayama Y, Matsuoka S, Watanuki Y (1999) Feeding rates and energy deficits of juvenile and adult Japanese monkeys in a cool temperate area with snow coverage. Ecol Res 14:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Negre A, Tarnaud L, Roblot JF, Gantier JC, Guillot J (2006) Plants consumed by Eulemur fulvus in Comoros Islands (Mayotte) and potential effects on intestinal parasites. Int J Primatol 27:1495–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nigi H, Matsubayashi K, Machida M (1975) Clinical examinations of Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) in Shiga A troop. Physiol Ecol 16:35–46Google Scholar
  75. Nunn C, Altizer S (2005) The global mammal parasite database: an online resource for infectious disease records in wild primates. Evol Anthropol 14:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nunn C, Altizer S (2006) Infectious diseases in primates: behavior, ecology and evolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nunn CL, Altizer SM, Sechrest W, Cunningham AA (2005) Latitudinal gradients of parasite species richness in primates. Divers Distrib 11:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ohigashi H, Huffman MA, Izutsu D, Koshimizu K, Kawanaka M, Sugiyama H, Kirby GC, Warhurst DC, Allen D, Wright CW, Phillipson JD, Timondavid P, Delmas F, Elias R, Balansard G (1994) Toward the chemical ecology of medicinal plant use in chimpanzees: the case of Vernonia amygdalina, a plant used by wild chimpanzees possibly for parasite-related diseases. J Chem Ecol 20:541–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ou M (1999) Regular Chinese medicine handbook. Warmth Publications, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  80. Pebsworth P, Krief S, Huffman MA (2006) The role of diet in self medication among chimpanzees in the Sonso and Kanyawara communities, Uganda. In: Newton-Fisher NE, Notman H, Paterson JD, Reynolds V (eds) Primates of Western Uganda. Springer, New York, pp 105–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Plants for a Future (1996–2008) Edible, medical and useful plants for a healthier world. Accessed on 25 January 2010
  82. Provenza FD, Burritt EA, Perevolotsky A, Silanikove N (2000) Self-regulation of intake of polyethylene glycol by sheep fed diets varying in tannin concentrations. J Anim Sci 78:1206–1212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Raubenheimer D, Simpson SJ (2009) Nutritional pharmecology: doses, nutrients, toxins, and medicines. Integr Comp Biol 49:329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rhoades DF (1979) Evolution of plant chemical defense against herbivores. In: Rosenthal GA, Janzen DH (eds) Herbivores: their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Academic, New York, pp 3–54Google Scholar
  85. Richard AF (1985) Primates in nature. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. Rivera WL, Kanbara H (1999) Detection of Entamoeba dispar DNA in macaque feces by polymerase chain reaction. Parasitol Res 85:493–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Robbins MM, Hohmann G (2006) Primate feeding ecology: an integrative approach. In: Hohmann G, Robbins MM, Boesch C (eds) Feeding ecology in apes and other primates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  88. Rosenthal GA, Berenbaum MR (1992) Herbivores: their interactions with secondary plant metabolites. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  89. Rosenthal GA, Janzen DH (1979) Herbivores: their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Singer MS, Mace KC, Bernays EA (2009) Self-medication as adaptive plasticity: increased ingestion of plant toxins by parasitized caterpillars. PLoS ONE 4:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Soumah AG, Yokota N (1991) Female rank and feeding strategies in a free-ranging provisioned troop of Japanese monkeys. Folia Primatol 57:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stephens DW, Krebs JR (1986) Foraging theory. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  93. Stephens DW, Brown JS, Ydenberg RC (2007) Foraging. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  94. Suzuki A (1965) An ecological study of wild Japanese monkeys in snowy areas: focused on their food habits. Primates 6:31–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tachibana H, Yanagi T, Akatsuka A, Kobayash S, Kanbara H, Tsutsumi V (2009) Isolation and characterization of a potentially virulent species Entamoeba nuttalli from captive Japanese macaques. Parasitology 136:1169–1177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Takyu M, Kubota Y, Aiba S, Seino T, Nishimura T (2005) Pattern of changes in species diversity, structure and dynamics of forest ecosystems along latitudinal gradients in East Asia. Ecol Res 20:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tanaka T, Nigi H (1967) Clinical examinations of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). Primates 8:91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tarnaud L, Yamagiwa J (2008) Age-dependent patterns of intensive observation on elders by free-ranging juvenile Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) within foraging context on Yakushima. Am J Primatol 70:1103–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tsuji Y, Kazahari N, Kitahara M, Takatsuki S (2008) A more detailed seasonal division of the energy balance and the protein balance of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan. Primates 49:157–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Uni S, Kobayashi S, Miyashita M, Kimura N, Kato A, Aimi M, Kimata I, Iseki M, Shoho C (1994) Geographic distribution of Gongylonema pulchrum and Gongylonema macrogubernaculum from Macaca fuscata in Japan. Parasite 1:127–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Villalba JJ, Provenza FD (2007) Self-medication and homeostatic behaviour in herbivores: learning about the benefits of nature’s pharmacy. Animal 1:1360–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Villalba JJ, Provenza FD, Shaw R (2006) Sheep self-medicate when challenged with illness-inducing foods. Anim Behav 71:1131–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wada K, Ichiki Y (1980) Seasonal home range use by Japanese monkeys in the snowy Shiga Heights. Primates 21:468–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wada Y, Tokida E (1981) Habitat utilization by wintering Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) in the Shiga Heights. Primates 22:330–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wakibara JV, Huffman MA, Wink M, Reich S, Aufreiter S, Hancock RGV, Sodhi R, Mahaney WC, Russel S (2001) The adaptive significance of geophagy for Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at Arashiyama, Japan. Int J Primatol 22:495–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wobeser GA (2007) Disease in wild animals: investigation and management. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yen KY (1992) The illustrated Chinese materia medica. SMC Publishing, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  108. Yokota N (1989) Food and energy intake of provisioned and free ranging Japanese monkeys at Takasakiyama. Primate Res 5:14–21 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yumoto T, Noma N, Maruhashi T (1998) Cheek-pouch dispersal of seeds by Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island. Primates 39:325–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social Systems Evolution Section, Department of Ecology and Social Behavior, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityInuyamaJapan

Personalised recommendations