Topic 1: Behavior-Related Candidate Genes in Japanese Macaques

  • Miho Inoue-Murayama
  • Eiji Inoue
  • Kunio Watanabe
  • Akiko Takenaka
  • Yuichi Murayama
Part of the Primatology Monographs book series (PrimMono, volume 0)


In Japanese macaques, records of individual behavior and regional differences have been accumulated by long-term observations and are suitable for the analysis of an inherited factor in the background. In humans, various studies have shown the associations between differences in human behavioral traits and genetic polymorphism, and some of the indicated genes have been found to be polymorphic in nonhuman primates. Among candidate genes, two loci, the promoter of monoamine oxidase A (MAOALPR) and an exon of androgen receptor (AR), are polymorphic in Japanese macaques. We genotyped a total of 139 individuals derived from eight regions and elucidated the regional differences of allele frequencies. Furthermore, we genotyped a total of 31 males from four groups from which individual data had been accumulated and analyzed the relationship with individual behavioral characteristics. Three and four alleles were observed in MAOALPR and AR, respectively. Allele frequency was greatly different among the eight regions. The Awajishima group, known as being highly tolerant of each other in the feeding site, was different from the other regions in MAOALPR and AR. Adult male dominance rank was related with genotypes in some groups, but a consistent tendency was not observed. It would be necessary to increase the number of samples and candidate genes in the future. Various perspectives for evaluation of personality should also be considered.


Androgen Receptor Nonhuman Primate Rhesus Macaque Japanese Macaque Dominance Rank 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are indebted to the late Professor O. Takenaka for providing samples. We thank Drs. H. Nigi, M. Iwamoto, S. Goto, and the staff of monkey parks for their cooperation in collecting samples. We thank Drs. N. Nakagawa, M. Nakamichi, H. Sugiura, Y. Kawamoto, K. Yamada, and B.B. Kayang for their comments. We are grateful to Ms. Y. Ueda for her technical assistance. This study was supported financially by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) with a Grant-in-aid for Science Research (B; #18310152 and #21310150 to MIM).


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Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miho Inoue-Murayama
    • 1
  • Eiji Inoue
    • 2
  • Kunio Watanabe
    • 3
  • Akiko Takenaka
    • 4
  • Yuichi Murayama
    • 5
  1. 1.Wildlife Research CenterKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Human Evolution Studies, Department of Zoology, Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Ecology and Conservation Section, Department of Ecology and Social Behavior, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityInuyamaJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of Human Healthy LifeNagoya Bunri UniversityInuyamaJapan
  5. 5.National Institute of Animal HealthTsukubaJapan

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