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Lifetime Social Development in Female Japanese Macaques

  • Masayuki Nakamichi
  • Kazunori Yamada
Part of the Primatology Monographs book series (PrimMono, volume 0)

Abstract

The present chapter reviews lifetime social development of female Japanese macaques, mainly based on studies conducted on groups that are provisioned and free-ranging or wild. During the first year of life, infants not only nurse on their mothers but also acquire the repertoire of edible food items by intensively observing their foraging mothers. Differences between female and male juveniles in terms of social relationships with mothers and other group members become clear from the second year of life onward, with few differences observed among different groups. Juvenile females maintain relatively frequent interactions with their mothers and are inclined to maintain close proximity relationships with group members who usually form the center of the group; furthermore, they actually tend to interact with younger individuals through social play and infant-handling, while still rarely maintaining affiliative relationships with adult females other than their mothers. Adolescent females tend to be integrated into the social network after first giving birth. Dominance relationships among adult females are strongly influenced by group size: in relatively small groups, dominance relations adhere almost perfectly to Kawamura’s rules, whereby females are collectively ranked within their kin-groups, and a clearly linear dominance rank order is apparent. However, with an increasing number of adult females in a group, the number of dyads whose dominance relationships do not follow Kawamura’s rules tends to increase and the linear dominance rank order becomes less apparent. Although the Japanese macaque is categorized as a despotic species among Macaca species, each group may include some females who show egalitarian tendencies such as nonkin-biased grooming; such females may play a role in increasing the integrity and cohesion of a group. In Japanese macaque groups, the number of females who experience the postreproductive period is very small. However, some such aged females could contribute to the survival of their young grandchildren. Accumulating data on the daily life of each female and describing the long-term social relationships among females could lead to a fuller understanding of the lifetime social development of female Japanese macaques.

Keywords

Adult Female Maternal Behavior Japanese Macaque Dominance Rank Dominance Relationship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We sincerely thank the staff members related to the three provisioned groups of Japanese macaques (Arashiyama, Awajishima, and Katsuyama) for their help and encouragement throughout the various studies we conducted. We could not have completed this manuscript without observing the Japanese macaques of these three provisioned groups for a number of years. We are grateful to L. Tarnaud and U. Sukino for their provision of important information on the dorsal carriage of infants and to S. Turner for her provision of useful information on grooming episodes. We also thank N. Nakagawa and H. Sugiura, co-editors of this volume, for their valuable comments on this and related work. This work was supported by grants from the Ministry of Education, Sciences, and Culture of Japan (Nos. 18653078 and 20330151).

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ethology, Graduate School of Human SciencesOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Wildlife Research CenterKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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