Interaction Between Male and Female Mating Strategies and Factors Affecting Reproductive Outcome

  • Shiho Fujita
Part of the Primatology Monographs book series (PrimMono, volume 0)


Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) have multimale–multifemale social groups, which provides for complex male and female mating strategies. According to the primate sexual selection theory, males fundamentally compete with rival males for access to females. Male mating strategies include direct male–male competition, sperm competition, and sneak copulation. On the other hand, females have a counterstrategy against male sexual coercion: extended receptivity, which functions to conceal the exact time of ovulation from males, and thus prevents individual males from monopolizing access to females. Female mating strategies include mate choice toward particular males, which brings a female or her offspring material and/or genetic benefits, and mating with multiple males to prevent infanticide through paternity confusion.


Mate Choice Sperm Competition Mating Season Japanese Macaque Dominance Rank 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Agetsuma N, Nakagawa N (1998) Effects of habitat differences on feeding behaviors of Japanese monkeys: comparison between Yakushima and Kinkazan. Primates 39:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altmann S (1962) A field study of the sociology of rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Ann N Y Acad Sci 102:338–435CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrett GM, Shimizu K, Bardi M, Asaba S, Mori A (2002) Endocrine correlates of rank, reproduction, and female-directed aggression in male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Horm Behav 42:85–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bercovitch F (1997) Reproductive strategies of rhesus macaques. Primates 38:247–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berenstain L, Wade T (1983) Intrasexual selection and male mating strategies in baboons and macaques. Int J Primatol 4:201–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dixson AF (1998) Primate sexuality: comparative studies of the prosimians, monkeys, apes, and human beings. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Engelhardt A, Pfeifer J-B, Heistermann M, Niemitz C, van Hooff JARAM, Hodges JK (2004) Assessment of female reproductive status by male longtailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, under natural conditions. Anim Behav 67:915–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Enomoto T (1974) The sexual behavior of Japanese monkeys. J Hum Evol 3:351–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Enomoto T (1975) The sexual behavior of wild Japanese monkeys. In: Kondo S, Kawai M, Ehara A (eds) Contemporary primatology: proceedings of 5th international primatological congress, Nagoya 1974. Karger, Basel, pp 275–279Google Scholar
  10. Enomoto T (1978) On social preference in sexual behavior of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). J Hum Evol 7:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Enomoto T (1981) Male aggression and the sexual behavior of Japanese monkeys. Primates 22:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Enomoto T, Seiki K, Haruki Y (1979) On the correlation between sexual behavior and ovarian hormone level during the menstrual cycle in captive Japanese monkeys. Primates 20:563–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fujita S, Sugiura H, Mitsunaga F, Shimizu K (2004) Hormonal profiles and reproductive ­characteristics in wild female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Am J Primatol 64:367–375CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hayakawa S (2007) Female defensibility in a small troops of Japanese macaques vis-a-vis nontroop males and copulation on the periphery of the troop. Int J Primatol 28:73–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hayakawa S (2008) Male–female mating tactics and paternity of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Am J Primatol 70:986–989CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hrdy S (1979) Infanticide among animals: a review, classification, and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of females. Ethol Sociobiol 1:13–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huffman MA (1987) Consort intrusion and female mate choice in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Ethology 75:221–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huffman MA (1991a) Consort relationship duration, conception, and social relationships in female Japanese macaques. In: Ehara A, Kimura T, Takenaka O, Iwamoto M (eds) Primatology today. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 199–202Google Scholar
  19. Huffman MA (1991b) Mate selection and partner preferences in female Japanese macaques. In: Fedigan LM, Asquith PJ (eds) The monkeys of Arashiyama: thirty-five years of research in Japan and the West. State University of New York Press, Albany, pp 101–122Google Scholar
  20. Huffman M (1992) Influences of female partner preference on potential reproductive outcome in Japanese macaques. Folia Primatol 59:77–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Inoue M, Takenaka O (1993) Japanese macaque microsatellite PCR primers for paternity testing. Primates 34:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Inoue E, Takenaka O (2007) The effect of male tenure and female mate choice on paternity in free-ranging Japanese macaques. Am J Primatol 70:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Inoue M, Takenaka A, Tanaka S, Kominami R, Takenaka O (1990) Paternity discrimination in a Japanese macaque group by DNA fingerprinting. Primates 31:563–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Inoue M, Mitsunaga F, Ohsawa H, Takenaka A, Sugiyama Y, Gaspard S, Takenaka O (1991) Male mating behaviour and paternity discrimination by DNA fingerprinting in a Japanese macaque group. Folia Primatol 56:202–210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Inoue M, Mitsunaga F, Nozaki M, Ohsawa H, Takenaka A, Sugiyama Y, Shimizu K, Takenaka O (1993) Male dominance rank and reproductive success in an enclosed group of Japanese macaques: with special reference to post-conception mating. Primates 34:503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Izawa K (2009) The studies of wild Japanese macaques [Yasei Nihon Zaru No Kenkyu]. Doubutsu-sha, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  27. Manson JH (1995) Do female rhesus macaques choose novel males? Am J Primatol 37:285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matsubara M (2003) Costs of mate guarding and opportunistic mating among wild male Japanese macaques. Int J Primatol 24:1057–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matsubara M, Sprague D (2004) Mating tactics in response to costs incurred by mating with multiple males in wild female Japanese macaques. Int J Primatol 25:901–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mitsunaga F, Nozaki M, Inoue M, Takenaka A, Takenaka O, Sugiyama Y, Ohsawa H (1992) Steroid hormones and sexual behavior of female Japanese monkeys in an enclosed group. In: Itoigawa N, Sugiyama Y, Sackett GP, Thompson RKR (eds) Topics in primatology, vol 3. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 23–34Google Scholar
  31. Mitsunaga F, Nozaki M, Shimizu K (1994) Suppressed copulatory behaviour and ovarian function in lactating Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata). Primates 35:79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mori A, Yamaguchi N, Watanabe K, Shimizu K (1997) Sexual maturation of female Japanese macaques under poor nutritional conditions and food-enhanced perineal swelling in the Koshima troop. Int J Primatol 18:553–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nakagawa N (1989) Bioenergetics of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) on Kinkazan island during winter. Primates 30:441–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nakayama Y, Matsuoka S, Watanuki Y (1999) Feeding rates and energy deficits of juvenile and adult Japanese monkeys in a cool temperature area with snow coverage. Ecol Res 14:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nigi H (1975) Menstrual cycle and some other related aspects of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Primates 16:206–216Google Scholar
  36. Nigi H, Hayama S (1990) Copulatory behavior unaccompanied by ovulation in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). Primates 31:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nozaki M, Mitsunaga F, Shimizu K (1995) Reproductive senescence in female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata): age- and season-related changes in hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian ­functions and fecundity rates. Biol Reprod 52:1250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Nunn CL (1999) The evolution of exaggerated sexual swellings in primates and the graded-signal hypothesis. Anim Behav 58:229–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Okayasu N (2001) Contrast of estrus in accordance with social contexts between two troops of wild Japanese macaques on Yakushima. Anthropol Sci 109:121–139Google Scholar
  40. Paul A (1997) Breeding seasonality affects the association between dominance and reproductive success in non-human male primates. Folia Primatol 68:344–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Paul A (2002) Sexual selection and mate choice. Int J Primatol 23:877–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paul A (2004) Dominance and paternity. In: Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns W (eds) Macaque societies: a model for the study of social organization. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 131–134Google Scholar
  43. Perloe S (1992) Male mating competition, female choice and dominance in a free ranging group of Japanese macaques. Primates 33:289–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Saito C, Sato S, Suzuki S, Sugiura H, Agetsuma N, Takahata Y, Sasaki C, Takahashi H, Tanaka T, Yamagiwa J (1998) Aggressive intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Primates 39:303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sillén-Tullberg B, Møller AP (1993) The relationship between concealed ovulation and mating systems in anthropoid primates: a phylogenetic analysis. Am Nat 141:1–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Small MF (1990) Promiscuity in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Am J Primatol 20:267–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Soltis J (1999) Measuring male–female relationships during the mating season in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Primates 40:453–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Soltis J (2004) Mating systems. In: Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns W (eds) Macaque societies: a model for the studies in biological and evolutionary anthropology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 135–151Google Scholar
  49. Soltis J, Mitsunaga F, Shimizu K, Nozaki M, Yanagihara Y, Domingo-roura X, Takenaka O (1997a) Sexual selection in Japanese macaques II: female mate choice and male–male competition. Anim Behav 54:737–746CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Soltis J, Mitsunaga F, Shimizu K, Yanagihara Y, Nozaki M (1997b) Sexual selection in Japanese macaques. I: Female mate choice or male sexual coercion? Anim Behav 54:725–736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Soltis J, Mitsunaga F, Shimizu K, Yanagihara Y, Nozaki M (1999) Female mating strategy in an enclosed group of Japanese macaques. Am J Primatol 47:263–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Soltis J, Thomsen R, Matsubayashi K, Takenaka O (2000) Infanticide by resident males and female counter-strategies in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 48:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Soltis J, Thomsen R, Takenaka O (2001) The interaction of male and female reprodictive strategies and paternity in wild Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata. Anim Behav 62:485–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sprague DS (1991) Mating by nontroop males among the Japanese macaques of Yakushima Island. Folia Primatol 57:156–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Suzuki S, Hill DA, Sprague DS (1998) Intertroop transfer and dominance rank structure of nonnatal male Japanese macaques in Yakushima, Japan. Int J Primatol 19:703–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Takahashi H (2001) Influence of fluctuation in the operational sex ratio to mating of troop and non-troop male Japanese macaques for four years on Kinkazan Island, Japan. Primates 42:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Takahashi H (2002) Female reproductive parameters and fruit availability: factors determining onset of estrus in Japanese macaques. Am J Primatol 51:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Takahashi H (2004) Do males have a better chance of mating when the number of estrous females is equal to or greater than the males’ ordinal rank? Testing the hypothesis in Japanese macaques. Am J Primatol 63:95–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Takahata Y (1980) The reproductive biology of a free-ranging troop of Japanese monkeys. Primates 21:303–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Takahata Y (1982a) Social relation between adult males and females of Japanese monkeys in the Arashiyama B troop. Primates 23:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Takahata Y (1982b) The socio-sexual behavior of Japanese monkeys. Z Tierpsychol 59:89–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Takahata Y, Suzuki S, Agetsuma N, Okayasu N, Sugiura H, Takahashi H, Yamagiwa J, Izawa K, Furuichi T, Hill DA, Maruhashi T, Saito C, Sato S, Sprague DS (1998) Reproduction of wild Japanese macaque females of Yakushima and Kinkazan Islands: a preliminary report. Primates 39:339–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Takahata Y, Huffman MA, Suzuki S, Koyama N, Yamagiwa J (1999) Why dominants do not consistently attain high mating and reproductive success: a review of longitudinal Japanese macaque studies. Primates 40:143–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tsuji Y, Fujita S, Sugiura H, Saito C, Takatsuki S (2006) Long-term variation in fruiting and the food habits of wild Japanese macaques on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan. Am J Primatol 68:1068–1080CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. van Schaik CP, Hodges JK, Nunn CL (2000) Paternity confusion and the ovarian cycles of female primates. In: van Schaik CP, Janson C (eds) Infanticide by males and its implications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 361–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Watanabe K, Mori A, Kawai M (1992) Characteristic features of the reproduction of Koshima monkeys, Macaca fuscata fuscata: a summary of thirty-four years of observation. Primates 33:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wolfe L (1986) Sexual strategies of female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Hum Evol 1:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wolff J, Macdonald D (2004) Promiscuous females protect their offspring. Trends Ecol Evol 19:127–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wrangham R (1980) An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour 75:262–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yamada K, Nakamichi M (2006) A fatal attack on an unweaned infant by a non-resident male in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at Katsuyama. Primates 47:165–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Yamagiwa J (1985) Socio-sexual factors of troop fission in wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Primates 26:105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yamagiwa J, Hill DA (1998) Intraspecific variation in the social organization of Japanese macaques: past and present scope of field studies in natural habitats. Primates 39:257–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zinner DP, Nunn CL, van Schaik CP, Kappeler PM (2004) Sexual selection and exaggerated sexual swellings of female primates. In: Kappeler PM, van Schaik CP (eds) Sexual selection in ­primates: new and comparative perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 71–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of AgricultureYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan

Personalised recommendations