Ecology and Control of the Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis), an Invasive Alien Species on the Ogasawara Islands

  • Mitsuhiko Toda
  • Hiroo Takahashi
  • Naomi Nakagawa
  • Naozumi Sukigara


The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) was introduced from North America to the Ogasawara Islands, where it has become established. The feeding behavior of these animals causes insect population collapse on the islands, and thus the species has been listed as an Invasive Alien Species in Japan since June 2005. Although the green anole population on the islands has not grown rapidly in recent times, its density could nevertheless approach hundreds to thousands of individuals per hectare. Given the biological and ecological characteristics of the species, highest management priority should be given to preventing dispersal to non-invaded islands. Area-specific control is the most practical approach for eradicating established populations. In a series of control projects conducted by Japanese Ministry of the Environment, adhesive traps for animal capture and Teflon sheet fencing to restrict movement were developed. With this technology, continuous green anole capture is now under way around the harbor of Chichijima to prevent dispersal to neighboring uninhabited islands. In addition, an experimental project for regional eradication has been set up on Hahajima in an attempt to resurrect the insect community.


Invasive Alien Species Forest Product Research Institute Regional Eradication Native Insect Ogasawara Island 



We are grateful to Ryuji Nakayama for providing valuable advice for the management for control of anole populations. Many thanks go to Noriyuki Komatsu for helping developing trap design and collecting reproductive data of anoles. We also indebted to Akira Ozono for supporting fieldwork and to Tomoko Oizumi and Mei Endo for checking English usage on the manuscript. This study was partially supported by the Global Environment Research Fund (F-51) by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan. The data in the section 4 was based on the public businesses by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan; “Control of the Invasive Alien Species (Green Anole) in the Ogasawara National Park” and “Action for Reptiles and Amphibians for Nature Revitalization in Ogasawara,” which were managed by Japan Wildlife Research Center.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsuhiko Toda
    • 1
  • Hiroo Takahashi
    • 1
  • Naomi Nakagawa
    • 1
  • Naozumi Sukigara
    • 1
  1. 1.Japan Wildlife Research CenterTaito-kuJapan

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