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Malformations

Abstract

The brain and upper spinal cord form from the neural plate during primary neurulation beginning at 22 days’ gestation; the sacral spinal cord forms from the tail bud during secondary neurulation [1]. The various classifications of neural tube defects (NTDs) is complex and somewhat contradictory [2]. Practically, they can be considered as “open” (e.g., anencephaly, craniorachischisis, myelomeningocele) or “closed” (e.g., encephaloceles, meningoceles, split spinal cord). There are several pathoetiologies [3]. Folic acid supplementation before and during early pregnancy prevents most NTDs [3,4]. A mutant mouse model for NTD, Splotch, is being used to define the mechanism of teratogenesis by folate insufficiency [5]. A second mutant, curly tail, has an NTD that responds to myoinositol [6].

Keywords

Focal Cortical Dysplasia Joubert Syndrome Magnetic Resonancy Imaging Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia Molar Tooth Sign 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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2 Malformations

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