Gene Selectors Consisting of DNA-Binding Proteins, Histories, and Histone-Binding Proteins Regulate the Three Major Stages of Gene Expression
Gene expression is the process whereby DNA sequence information is converted into a functional transmitter or player, namely, mRNA, and then a major functional player, namely, protein. Transcription is the first step in gene expression. Since the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression define cellular identity, transcription is the most critical and fundamental step in the cellular functions of a gene. We have classified transcriptional regulation into three functional stages on the basis of the complexity of the DNA structures involved. The first level concerns the activation/inactivation of promoters on naked DNA, the second level entails activation/inactivation of nucleosomes, while the third level involves the activation/inactivation of chromosomal regions (Fig. 1). We denote the components that determine which genes are activated or repressed at each of these levels as “gene selectors.” We have categorized the gene selectors into three main groups, namely, DNA-binding proteins, histones (non-specific DNA-binding proteins), and histone-binding proteins. These three types of gene selectors work in cooperation to select the genes that are to be expressed (Fig. 2).
KeywordsChromatin Remodel Complex Curr Opin Cell Biol Histone Chaperone Nucleosome Assembly Nucleosome Structure
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