Dynamics, Roles, and Diseases of the Nuclear Membrane, Lamins, and Lamin-binding Proteins
The nuclear envelope is the boundary between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The nuclear envelope consists of two lipid bilayers, the nuclear lamina and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) (Fig. 1). The transfer of materials between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm is regulated by NPCs. The nuclear envelope is also the basis of the nuclear architecture and functions. Inner nuclear membrane proteins connect the nuclear lamina and the nuclear membrane (Fig. 1). The nuclear envelope provides a platform for chromatin. The participation of inner nuclear membrane proteins in gene replication and expression has been demonstrated. The nuclear envelope also dynamically changes in structure during the cell cycle. In vertebrates, it is disassembled in the prometaphase, and reassembled at the transition from the anaphase to the telophase. Some control systems for these dynamic changes, i.e., microtubule-dynein, Ran-importinß and phosphorylation-dephosphorylation systems, were partially revealed recently. On the other hand, it has become clear that when some proteins supporting such nuclear envelope functions are mutated, unexpected diseases, i.e., muscular dystrophies, familial partial lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, progeria, and others, are caused.
KeywordsMuscular Dystrophy Nuclear Envelope Nuclear Lamina Nuclear Envelope Protein Nuclear Membrane Protein
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