The somatic division, called mitosis, is characterized by equal distribution of parental genome into two daughter cells. Mitosis involves a dramatic reorganization of both nucleus and cytoplasm driven by protein kinase cascades including master controller Cdkl-cyclin B. Mitosis is an ancient eukaryotic event, and some divergence emerged during evolution. Many single cell eukaryotes, including yeast and slime molds, undergo a closed mitosis, in which mitotic spindle formation and chromosome segregation occur within an intact nuclear envelope. However, higher eukaryotes such as animal and plant cells use open mitosis, in which nuclear envelope disassembles before the chromosomes segregate. This review primarily focuses on mitotic chromosome segregation in animal cells and refers to other organisms when regulation is mechanistically conserved. For convenience of discussion, mitotic chromosome dynamics are subdivided into six phases: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis.
KeywordsAdenomatous Polyposis Coli Spindle Pole Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Spindle Checkpoint Mitotic Checkpoint
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