Perspective—toward understanding the in situ genome function
During the latest decade, the studies that have attempted to understand the regulatory mechanism of the structure and function of chromatin have had a great research impact with respect to the research in the field related to nuclear functions, including transcription and replication. The analysis of the molecular mechanism of replication and transcription began with the dissection and reconstitution of cell-free systems that mimicked the accurate enzymatic processes in test tubes. The cell-free replication system of the adenovirus genome DNA replication—the first cell-free eukaryotic DNA replication system—was reconstituted with purified viral proteins and host cell factors. Using this system, NF-I was identified as one of the host factors, and it was shown to be a sequence-specific DNA binding protein—one of the first cases of such paradigm proteins. The reconstituted cell-free SV40 DNA replication system has provided us with an important basis for understanding cellular genome replication. The cell-free transcription system that used nuclear extracts and a DNA fragment corresponding to the adenovirus major late promoter region built a basic sculpture/landscape of the molecular mechanism of transcription.
KeywordsHistone Modification Nuclear Periphery Nuclear Function Histone Chaperone Host Cell Factor
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