Advertisement

Sika Deer pp 453-472 | Cite as

Management Strategy of Sika Deer Based on Sensitivity Analysis

  • Shingo Miura
  • Kunihiko Tokida

We conducted sensitivity analysis of sika deer (Cervus nippon) based on demographic parameters obtained from a variety of previously studied populations and applied a life-stage matrix model. Sensitivity analysis by a stochastic model revealed that adult female survival was the most effective in the population growth rate; this was also supported by an analytical model. Survival of young and fecundity of adults had an impact on the growth rate in a rapidly increasing population. Based on the life history characteristics of sika deer, long-term warm winters were the major factor causing recent increases of population sizes and range expansion, which was accompanied by enlargement of habitat due to drastic changes in human society. Female hunting was effective for controlling these populations, but careful management in the newly proposed scheme is required.

Keywords

Density Dependence Adult Survival Japan Meteorological Agency Vital Rate Sika Deer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Asada, M., and K. Ochiai. 2001. Annual report on conservation and management of sika deer in Boso Peninsula, Chiba Prefecture: 9. Chiba Prefecture, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  2. Benton. T. G., and A. Grant. 1996. How to keep fit in the real world: Elasticity analyses and selection pressures on life histories in a variable environment. American Naturalist 147:115–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biodiversity Center of Japan. 2004. The national survey on the natural environment. Report of the distribution of Japanese animals (mammals). Ministry of Environment, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowyer, R. T., M. C. Nicholson, E. M. Molvar, and J. B. Faro. 1999. Moose on Kalgin Island: Are density-dependent processes related to harvest? Alces 35:73–89Google Scholar
  5. Brault, S., and H. Caswell. 1993. Pod-specific demography of killer whales (Orcinus orcus). Ecology 74:1444–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caswell, H. 1989. Matrix population models. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Caswell, H. 2001. Matrix population models, 2nd edition. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. Caughley, G. 1977. Analysis of vertebrate populations. Wiley, New York, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  9. Caughley, G. 1994. Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63:215–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Citta, J. J., and L. S. Mills. 1999. What do demographic sensitivity analyses tell us about controlling brown-headed cowbirds? Studies in Avian Biology 18:121–134Google Scholar
  11. Clutton-Brock, T. H., and S. D. Albon. 1982. Winter mortality in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Journal of Zoology 198:515–519Google Scholar
  12. Clutton-Brock, T. H., F. E. Guiness, and S. D. Albon. 1982. Red deer: Behavior and ecology of two sexes. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  13. Crooks, K. R., M. A. Sanjayan, and D. E. Doak. 1998. New insights on cheetah conservation through demographic modeling. Conservation Biology 12:889–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cross, P. C., and S. R. Beissinger. 2001. Using logistic regression to analyze the sensitivity of PVA models: A comparison of methods based on African wild dog models. Conservation Biology 15:1335–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crouse, D. T., L. B. Crowder, and H. Caswell. 1987. A stage-based population model for loggerhead sea turtles and implications for conservation. Ecology 68:1412–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crowder, K. B., D. T. Crouse, S. S. Heppell, and T. H. Martin. 1994. Predicting the impact of turtle excluder devices on loggerhead sea turtle populations. Ecological Applications 4:437–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Kroon, H., J. van Groenendael, and J. Ehrlen. 2000. Elasticities: A review of methods and model limitations. Ecology 81:607–619Google Scholar
  18. Eberhardt, L. L. 1977. Optimal policies for conservation of large mammals with special reference to marine ecosystems. Environmental Conservation 4:205–212Google Scholar
  19. Ecos, J., C. L. Alados, and J. M. Emlen. 1994. Application of the stage-projection model with density-dependent fecundity to the population dynamics of Spanish ibex. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ericsson G., K. Wallin, J. P. Ball, and M. Broberg. 2001. Age-related reproductive effort and senescence in free-ranging moose, Alces alces. Ecology 82:1613–1620Google Scholar
  21. Festa-Bianchet, M., J. T. Jorgenson, M. Lucherini, and W. D. Wishart. 1995. Life-history consequences of variation in age of primiparity in bighorn ewes. Ecology 76:871–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fowler, C. W. 1981. Density dependence as related to life history strategy. Ecology 62: 602–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaillard, J.-M., A. J. Sempere, J.-M. Boutin, G. van Laere, and B. Boisaubert. 1992. Effects of age and body weight on the proportion of females breeding in a population of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:1541–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gaillard, J.-M., D. Delorme, and J. M. Jullien. 1993. Effects of cohort, sex, and birth date on body development of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) fawns. Oecologia 94:57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gaillard, J.-M., M. Festa-Bianchet, and N. G. Yoccoz. 1998. Population dynamics of large herbivores: Variable recruitment with constant adult survival. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gaillard, J.-M., M. Festa-Bianchet, N. G. Yoccoz, A. Loison, and C. Toigo. 2000. Temporal variation in fitness components and population dynamics of large herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:367–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Geist, V. 1971. Mountain sheep: A study in behavior and evolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Grand, J., and S. R. Beissinger. 1997. When relocation of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests becomes a useful strategy. Journal of Herpetology 31:428–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guiness, F. E., T. H. Clutton-Brock, and S. D. Albon. 1978. Factors affecting calf mortality in red deer. Journal of Animal Ecology 47:812–832Google Scholar
  30. Hayssen, V., A. van Tienhoven, and A. van Tienhoven, editors. 1993. Asdell's patterns of mammalian reproduction. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  31. Heppell, S. S., H. Caswell, and L. B. Crowder. 2000. Life histories and elasticity patterns: Perturbation analysis for species with minimal demographic data. Ecology 81:654–665Google Scholar
  32. Horvitz, C. C., D. W. Schemske, and H. Caswell. 1997. The relative “importance” of life-history stages to population growth: Prospective and retrospective approaches. Pages 247–272 in S. Tuljapurkar and H. Caswell, editors, Structured-population models in marine, terrestrial, and freshwater systems. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  33. Iimura, T. 1980. An ecological study on the Japanese deer, Cervus nippon centralis, in the Tanzawa Mountains from the view point of forest protection. Dainipponsanrinkai, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese with English summary.)Google Scholar
  34. Inukai, T. 1952. The sika deer of Hokkaido and its prosperity and decline. The Report of Northern Cultural Research (Hoppo Bunka Kenkyu Houkuku) 7:1–45. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  35. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2004. Report on climate change. Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  36. Japan Meteorological Agency. 2007. Long-term trends of phenological events in Japan. Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  37. Kaji, K. 1997. Annual report on conservation and management of Yezo sika deer in Hokkaido, 2. Hokkaido, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  38. Kie, J. G, M. White, and D. L. Drawe. 1983. Condition parameters of white-tailed deer in Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:583–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koizumi, T. 1992. Reproductive characteristics of female sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Pages 561–563 in F. Spitz, G. Janeau, G. Gonzalez, and S. Aulagnier, editors. Ongulés/Ungulates 91. Societé Française pour l'Étude et la Protection de Mammifères, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  40. Loison A, C. Toigo, J. Apollinaire, and J. Michallet. 2002. Demographic processes in colonizing populations of isard (Rupicapra pyrenaica) and ibex (Capra ibex). Journal of Zoology, London 256:199–205Google Scholar
  41. Maruyama, N., and K. Takano. 1985. Basic research on large mammals and changes in forest environment, pages 248–253, Environmental Agency, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  42. Matsuda, H., K. Kaji, H. Uno, H. Hirakawa, and T. Saitoh. 1999. A management policy for sika deer based on sex-specific hunting. Researches on Population Ecology 41:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McCarthy, M. A., M. A. Burgman, and S. Ferson. 1995. Sensitivity analysis for models of population viability. Biological Conservation 73:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCullough, D. R. 1979. The George Reserve deer herd: Population ecology of a K-selected species. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAGoogle Scholar
  45. McCullough, D. R. 1999. Density dependence and life-history strategies of ungulates. Journal of Mammalogy 80:1130–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Menkens, G. E., Jr., and M. S. Boyce. 1993. Comments on the use of time-specific and cohort life tables. Ecology 74:2164–2168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mech, L. D., R. E. McRoberts, R. O. Peterson, and R. E. Page. 1987. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters. Journal of Animal Ecology 56:615–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mills, L. S., and M. S. Lindberg. 2002. Sensitivity analysis to evaluate the consequences of conservation actions. Pages 338–366 in S. R. Beissinger and D. R. McCullough, editors, Population viability analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  49. Mills, L. S., D. F. Doak, and M. J. Wisdom. 1999. Reliability of conservation actions based on elasticity analysis of matrix models. Conservation Biology 13:819–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Milner-Gulland, E. J. 1994. A population model for the management of the saiga antelope. Journal of Applied Ecology 31:25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2004. Annual report on agricultural damage caused by wildlife in Japan. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  52. Miura, S. 1984. Social behavior and territoriality in male sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck 1838) during the rut. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 64:33–73Google Scholar
  53. Miura, S. 1991. Life history strategies of Japanese ungulates and their management. Pages 244–273 in M. Asahi and T. Kawamichi, editors, Contemporary mammalogy. Asakura-Shoten, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  54. Miura, S. 1999. Ecology of wildlife and agricultural and forestry damage. ZenRinKyo, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  55. Nelson, L. J., and J. M. Peek. 1982. Effect of survival and fecundity on rate of increase of elk. Journal of Wildlife Management 46:535–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ohtaishi, N. 1975. Life table of sika deer in Nara Park. Pages 25–35 in Annual report sika deer in Nara Park, 1974. Kasuga-Kenshokai, Nara, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  57. Pianka, E. R. 1970. On r and K selection. American Naturalist 104:592–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Picton, H. D. 1984. Climate and the prediction of reproduction of three ungulate species. Journal of Applied Ecology 21:869–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Post, E., and N. C. Stenseth. 1998. Large-scale climatic fluctuation and population dynamics of moose and white-tailed deer. Journal of Animal Ecology 67:537–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Post, E., and N. C. Stenseth. 1999. Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates. Ecology 80:1322–1339Google Scholar
  61. Read, A. F., and P. H. Harvey. 1989. Life history differences among the eutherian radiations. Journal of Zoology, London 219:323–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sadleir, R. M. F. S. 1987. Reproduction in female cervids. Pages 123–144 in C. M. Wemmer, editor, Biology and management of the Cervidae. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  63. Senda, M., Y. Tanimoto, and N. Koyama. 2002. Economic results of grazing on less-utilized arable fields in LFAs. Bulletin of National Agricultural Research Center for Western Region 2:41–58. (In Japanese with English summary.)Google Scholar
  64. Shea, K., and D. Kelly. 1998. Estimating biocontrol agent impact with matrix models: Carduus nutans in New Zealand. Ecological Applications 8:824–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Silvertown, J., M. Franco, and E. Menges. 1996. Interpretation of elasticity matrices as an aid to the management of plant populations for conservation. Conservation Biology 10:591–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Singer, F. J., A. Harting, K. K. Symonds, and M. B. Coughenour. 1997. Density dependence, compensation, and environmental effects on elk calf mortality in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:12–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Skogland, T. 1985. The effects of density-dependent resource limitations on the demography of wild reindeer. Journal of Animal Ecology 54:359–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Skogland, T. 1988. Tooth wear by food limitation and its life history consequence in wild reindeer. Oikos 51:238–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Takatsuki, S. 1992. Sika deer living in the north. Doubutsusha Publishing, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  70. Takatsuki, S. 1998. The twinning rate of sika deer, Cervus nippon, on Mt. Goyo, northern Japan. Mammal Study 23:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Takatsuki, S. 2000. Life of sika deer reconstructed by teeth. Iwanami-Shoten, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  72. Takatsuki, S., and K. Suzuki. 1990. Reproductive performance of female sika deer in Goyo Mountain. Annual Meeting of the Mammal Society of Japan. Abstract 79. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  73. Takatsuki, S., S. Miura, K. Suzuki, and K. Ito. 1991. Age structure of mass mortality in the sika deer (Cervus nippon) population on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan. Journal of the Mammalogical Society of Japan 15:91–98Google Scholar
  74. Uno, H., M. Yokoyama, and M. Takahashi. 1998. Winter mortality pattern of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Akan National Park, Hokkaido. Mammalian Science 38:233–246. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  75. Unsworth, J. W., D. F. Pac, G. C. White, and R. M. Bartmann. 1999. Mule deer survival in Colorado, Idaho, and Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Walsh, N. E., B. Griffith, and T. R. McCabe. 1995. Evaluating growth of the Porcupine caribou herd using a stochastic model. Journal of Wildlife Management 59:262–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. White, G. C. 2002. Population viability analysis: Data requirements and essential analyses. Pages 288–331 in L. Boitani and T. K. Fuller, editors, Research techniques in animal ecology: Uses and misuses. Columbia University Press, New York, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  78. Wisdom, M. J., and L. S. Mills. 1997. Sensitivity analysis to guide population recovery: Prairie chickens as an example. Journal of Wildlife Management 61:302–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wisdom, M. J., L. S. Mills, and D. F. Doak. 2000. Life-stage simulation analysis: Estimating vitalrate effects on population growth for conservation. Ecology 81:628–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yamauchi, K., S. Hamasaki, Y. Takeuchi, and Y. Mori. 1997. Assessment of reproductive status of sika deer by fecal steroid analysis. Journal of Reproductive Development 43:221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shingo Miura
    • 1
  • Kunihiko Tokida
    • 2
  1. 1.Professor, School of Human SciencesWaseda UniversityTokorozawaJapan
  2. 2.Senior Scientist, Japan Wildlife Research CenterTaitou-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations