Advertisement

Sika Deer pp 327-350 | Cite as

Reproduction of Female Sika Deer in Western Japan

  • Toru Koizumi
  • Shin-ichiro Hamasaki
  • Mayumi Kishimoto
  • Mayumi Yokoyama
  • Masato Kobayashi
  • Aiko Yasutake

We describe the reproductive characteristics of female sika deer as determined from fetuses in hunter-killed samples from Hyogo Prefecture, Honshu Island in southwestern Japan, and from similar samples from Kumamoto Prefecture in Kushu Island, the southwestern-most main island in Japan. No fawns were pregnant in either sample. In Hyogo 76.6% of yearling and 89.4% of older females were pregnant, as compared to 84% and 92% for Kumamoto. The pregnancy rate did not decline with age of female in either population. Fetal development is described. Reproductive parameters were similar to those of populations in other parts of Japan. However, timing varied from northeast to southwest, with the latest birth times and shortest duration of fawning occurring in Hokkaido. The timing of fawning was correlated with a warmth index used to describe vegetation growth, with fawning being later in the north and at higher elevations.

Keywords

Pregnancy Rate White Spot Sika Deer Deer Density Warmth Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Asada, M., and K. Ochiai. 1996. Conception dates of sika deer on the Boso Peninsula, central Japan. Mammal Study 21:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergerud, A. T. 1975. The reproductive season of Newfoundland caribou. Canadian Journal of Zoology 53:1213–1221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blouch, R. A. 1987. Reproductive seasonality of the white-tailed deer on the Colombian llanos. Pages 339–343 in C. E. Wemmer, editor, Biology and management of the Cervidae. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  4. Bronson, F. H. 1989. Mammalian reproductive biology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. Bunnell, F. L. 1982. The lambing period of mountain sheep: Synthesis, hypothesis, and tests.Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman, D. I., and M. T. Horwood. 1968. Pregnancy in a sika deer calf, Cervus nippon. Journal of Zoology 155:227–228Google Scholar
  7. Chapman, D. I., N. G. Chapman, and O. Dansie. 1984. The periods of conception and parturition in feral Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) in southern England based upon age of juvenile animals. Journal of Zoology, London 204:575–578Google Scholar
  8. Clutton-Brock, T. H., F. E. Guiness, and S. D. Albon. 1982. Red deer: Behavior and ecology of two sexes. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  9. Dauphine, T. C., and R. L. McClure. 1974. Synchronous mating in Canadian barren-ground caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 38:54–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davidson, M. M. 1976. Season of parturition and fawning percentages of sika deer in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 5:355–357Google Scholar
  11. Doi, T., A. Endo, H. Kawahara, and M. Baba. 2004. Annual report on assessment of a storage dam in Ojika district in 2003. Kyushu University Graduate School of Science Department of Biology, Fukuoka, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  12. Haensel, J. 1980. Zur biologie der Vietnam-sikas (Cervus nippon pseudaxis Eydoux and Souleyet, 1838) Untersuchungen an der Zuchtgruppe im Tierpark Berlin 5:69–99. (Cited from Sadlier 1987.)Google Scholar
  13. Huggett, A. St. G., and W. F. Widdas. 1951. The relationship between mammalian foetal weight and conception age. Journal of Physiology, London 114:306–317Google Scholar
  14. Hama, N. 1988. Pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonic scanning and measurement of serum progesterone level in Ezo sika does (Cervus nippon yesoensis Heude). Graduation thesis, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. (In Japanese with English summary.)Google Scholar
  15. Kaji, K., T. Koizumi, and N. Ohtaishi. 1988. Effects of resource limitation on the physical and reproductive condition of sika deer on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido. Acta Theriologica 33:187–208Google Scholar
  16. Koizumi, T. 1998.Transition of forestry and wildlife damage in Japan. Pages 9–18 in B.-Y. Lee, S.-G. Lee, and B.-H. Yoo, editors, Forest protection in northeast Asia. Forestry Research Institute, Seoul, KoreaGoogle Scholar
  17. Leader-Williams, N. 1988. Reindeer on South Georgia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  18. Loudon, A. S. I., and J. D. Curlewis. 1988. Cycles of antler and testicular growth in an aseasonal tropical deer (Axis axis). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 83:729–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mitchell, B., and G. A. Lincoln. 1973. Conception dates in relation to age and condition in two populations of red deer in Scotland. Journal of Zoology 171:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrison, J. A., C. E. Trainer, and P. L. Wright. 1959. Breeding season in elk as determined from known-age embryos. Journal of Wildlife Management 23:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mullan, J. M., G. A. Feldhamer, and D. Morton. 1988. Reproductive characteristics of female sika deer in Maryland and Virginia. Journal of Mammalogy 69:388–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murakami, T., and T. Koizumi. 2003. Broad spatial scale study about the relationship between the appearance trend of clear cutting area and the distribution of new planting area damaged by deer browsing. Kyushu Journal of Forest Research 56:101–104. (In Japanese with English summary.)Google Scholar
  23. Ratcliffe, P. R. 1987. Distribution and current status of sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Great Britain. Mammal Review 17:39–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sadlier, R. M. F. S. 1987. Reproduction of female cervids. Pages 123–144 in C. E. Wemmer, editor, Biology and management of the Cervidae. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  25. Suzuki, M., and N. Ohtaishi. 1993. Reproduction of female sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis Huede, 1884) in Ashoro District, Hokkaido. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 55:833–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Suzuki, M., T. Koizumi, and M. Kobayashi. 1992 Reproductive characteristics and occurrence of accessory corpora lutea in sika deer Cervus nippon centralis in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Journal of the Mammalogical Society of Japan 17:11–18Google Scholar
  27. Suzuki, M., K. Kaji, M. Yamanaka, and N. Ohtaishi. 1996. Gestational age determination, variation of conception date, and external fetal development of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis Heude, 1884) in eastern Hokkaido. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 58:505–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Whitehead, K. G. 1993. Encyclopedia of deer. Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhuo, S. L., and S. Z. Wu. 1981. Observations on the sika deer's reproductive physiology and breeding capability in Sichuan. Zoology Magazine August:18–21Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toru Koizumi
    • 1
  • Shin-ichiro Hamasaki
    • 2
  • Mayumi Kishimoto
    • 3
  • Mayumi Yokoyama
    • 4
  • Masato Kobayashi
    • 5
  • Aiko Yasutake
    • 3
  1. 1.Director of Department of Wildlife Biology, Department of Wildlife BiologyForest and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Chief of Kansai Branch, Wildlife Management OfficeKita-kuJapan
  3. 3.Researcher of Kansai Branch, Wildlife Management OfficeKita-kuJapan
  4. 4.Institute of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Wildlife Management Research CenterUniversity of HyogoTanbaJapan
  5. 5.Student at Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Faculty of AgricultureKyoto UniversitySakyo-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations