Sika Deer pp 327-350 | Cite as

Reproduction of Female Sika Deer in Western Japan

  • Toru Koizumi
  • Shin-ichiro Hamasaki
  • Mayumi Kishimoto
  • Mayumi Yokoyama
  • Masato Kobayashi
  • Aiko Yasutake

We describe the reproductive characteristics of female sika deer as determined from fetuses in hunter-killed samples from Hyogo Prefecture, Honshu Island in southwestern Japan, and from similar samples from Kumamoto Prefecture in Kushu Island, the southwestern-most main island in Japan. No fawns were pregnant in either sample. In Hyogo 76.6% of yearling and 89.4% of older females were pregnant, as compared to 84% and 92% for Kumamoto. The pregnancy rate did not decline with age of female in either population. Fetal development is described. Reproductive parameters were similar to those of populations in other parts of Japan. However, timing varied from northeast to southwest, with the latest birth times and shortest duration of fawning occurring in Hokkaido. The timing of fawning was correlated with a warmth index used to describe vegetation growth, with fawning being later in the north and at higher elevations.


Pregnancy Rate White Spot Sika Deer Deer Density Warmth Index 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toru Koizumi
    • 1
  • Shin-ichiro Hamasaki
    • 2
  • Mayumi Kishimoto
    • 3
  • Mayumi Yokoyama
    • 4
  • Masato Kobayashi
    • 5
  • Aiko Yasutake
    • 3
  1. 1.Director of Department of Wildlife Biology, Department of Wildlife BiologyForest and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Chief of Kansai Branch, Wildlife Management OfficeKita-kuJapan
  3. 3.Researcher of Kansai Branch, Wildlife Management OfficeKita-kuJapan
  4. 4.Institute of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Wildlife Management Research CenterUniversity of HyogoTanbaJapan
  5. 5.Student at Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Faculty of AgricultureKyoto UniversitySakyo-kuJapan

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