Advertisement

Sika Deer pp 285-296 | Cite as

Variation in Mating Behavior of Sika Deer: Mating Behavior of Sika Deer on Nozaki Island

  • Akira Endo

Variation in the mating tactics of male sika deer (Cervus nippon) associated with female distribution was studied on Nozaki Island in the Goto Islands, Japan. In 1990, 1991, and 1993, observations were carried out mainly in an open grassland (about 5 ha) in the central part of the island, which was regularly used by 20 adult females and their calves for daily feeding. A majority of the observed females were not associated with other females. The estrous days of these females were not synchronous. Several females accepted multiple copulations. In the rutting season of 1991, five dominant males (DMs) established and kept exclusive home ranges, while those of subordinate males (SMs) considerably overlapped with other males. The mean home range size of dominants (4.28 ± 0.74 ha) was significantly smaller than that of subordinates (10.14 ± 0.59 ha). The open grasslands where females stayed longest when foraging during the day were occupied by dominant males, but subordinates were not chased out violently by dominants. We, therefore, designated the home range of a dominant male as “dominance area.” Most females copulated with dominant males. The mating success of dominants was significantly greater than that of subordinates (U = 0, p < 0.01). Frequently, dominant males did not search for estrous females, but intercepted estrous females from subordinates. The “mating aggregation” was formed more frequently by subordinates and might be an alternative mating tactics of subordinates. Almost all copulations were followed by guarding behavior. The postcopulatory guarding by DMs appears to be more effective in the prevention of additional female copulations with other males than guarding by SMs. Dominant males often copulated repeatedly with the same female. If the paternity of a male increases with the amount of sperm, repeated copulation seems to be an adaptation to increase his reproductive success. SMs decreased the duration of the precopulatory phase to achieve copulation before having to give way to DMs.

Keywords

Home Range Home Range Size Sika Deer Dominant Male Fallow Deer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez, F., F. Braza, and A. Norzagary. 1975. Estructura social del gamo (Dama dama, Mammalia, Cervidae), en Donana. Ardeola Especial 21:1119–1142Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez, F., F. Braza, and C. San Jose. 1990. Coexistence of territoriality and harem defense in a rutting fallow deer population. Journal of Mammalogy 71:692–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Apollonio, M., M. Festa-Bianchet, and F. Mari. 1989. Correlates of copulatory success in a fallow deer lek. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 25:89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradbury, J. W., and S. L. Vehrencamp. 1977. Social organization and foraging in emballonurid bats, III: Mating systems. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 2:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clutton-Brock, T. H., F. E. Guiness, and S. D. Albon. 1982. Red deer: Behavior and ecology of two sexes. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. Clutton-Brock, T. H., D. Green, M. Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, and S. D. Albon. 1988. Passing the buck: Resource defence, lek breeding and mate choice in fallow deer. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 23:281–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davies, N. B. 1991. Mating systems. Pages 263–294 in J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davis, editors, Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  9. Doi, T., and A. Endo. 1992. A report on a census of sika deer in Nozaki Island, the Goto Islands. Ojika Town Office, Ojika, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  10. Emlen, S. T., and L. W. Oring. 1977. Ecology, sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197:215–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Endo, A., and T. Doi. 1996. Home range of female sika deer (Cervus nippon) on Nozaki Island, the Goto Archipelago, Japan. Mammal Study 21:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Endo, A., and T. Doi. 2001. Asynchronous estrus of female sika deer (Cervus nippon) during the rutting season. Mammal Study 26:69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Endo, A., and T. Doi. 2002. Multiple copulations and post-copulatory guarding in a free-living population of sika deer (Cervus nippon). Ethology 108: 39–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Endo, A., T. Doi, and A. Shiraki. 1997. Post-copulative guarding: mating behavior of non-territorial male sika deer (Cervus nippon) in an enclosure. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 54:257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hirth, D. H. 1997. Lek breeding in a Texas population of fallow deer (Dama dama). American Midland Naturalist 138:276–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iason, G. R., and F. E. Guiness. 1985. Synchrony of oestrus and conception in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.). Animal Behaviour 33:1169–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kawahara, H. 1983. Vegetation of Nozaki-jima, the Goto Island. Bulletin Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science 24:239–247. (In Japanese with English summary.)Google Scholar
  18. Kelly, R. W., K. P. McNatty, and G. H. Moore. 1985. Hormonal changes about oestrus in female red deer. Pages 181–184 in P. F. Fennessy and K. R. Drew, editors, Biology of deer production. The Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin 22, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  19. Langbein, J., and S. J. Thirgood. 1989. Variation in mating systems of fallow deer (Dama dama) in relation to ecology. Ethology 83:195–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lott, D. F. 1984. Intraspecific variation in the social systems of wild vertebrates. Behaviour 88:266–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lott D. F. 1991. Intraspecific variation in the social systems of wild vertebrates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  22. Minami, M. 1992. Peculiar mating behavior of sika deer. The Earth and Animals 55:204–207. Asahi-Shinbun, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  23. Miura S. 1978. A year of sika deer in Nara Park: I. Rutting period. Annual Report of Nara Deer Research Association 4:3–13. (In Japanese with English summary.)Google Scholar
  24. Miura S. 1980. A year of sika deer in Nara Park: II. Birth season. Annual Report of Nara Deer Research Association. 5:87–94. (In Japanese with English summary.)Google Scholar
  25. Miura S. 1984. Social behavior and territoriality in male sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck 1838). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 64:33–73Google Scholar
  26. Miura S. 1986. A note on the evolution and social system in Cervidae. Honyurui Kagaku (Mammalian Science) 53:19–24. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  27. Mohr C. O. 1947. Table of equivalent populations of North American small mammals. American Midland Naturalist 37:223–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moore N. P., P. F. Kelly, J. P. Cahill, and T. J. Hayden, T. J. 1995. Mating strategies and mating success of fallow (Dama dama) bucks in a non-lekking population. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 36:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moore, W. G., and R. L. Marchinton. 1974. Marking behavior and its social function in whitetailed deer. Pages 447–456 in V. Geist and F. Walther, editors, The behaviour of ungulates and its relation to management. IUCN New Series, No.24. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Morges, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  30. Ohtaishi, N. 1986. Preliminary memorandum of classification, distribution and geographic variation on sika deer. Honyurui Kagaku (Mammalian Science) 53:13–17. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  31. Schaal, A. 1985a. Observations preliminaires sur le cycle sexuel du daim, Cervus (Dama) dama. Mammalia 49:288–291Google Scholar
  32. Schaal, A. 1985b. Variation of mating system in fallow deer (Dama dama). Abstracts 19th International Ethological Conference 1:277. Toulouse, FranceGoogle Scholar
  33. Schaal, A., and J. W. Bradbury, 1987. Lek breeding in a deer species. Biology of Behaviour 12:28–32Google Scholar
  34. Takatsuki, S. 1991. Feeding ecology of herbivores. Pages 119–137 in M. Asahi and T. Kawamichi, editors, Modern mammalogy. Asakura-shoten, Tokyo, Japan. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Endo
    • 1
  1. 1.Researcher, Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureSaga UniversitySagaJapan

Personalised recommendations