Sika Deer pp 181-191 | Cite as

The Dynamics of Forest Stands Affected by Sika Deer on Nakanoshima Island—Change of Size Structure Similar to the Thinning Effect

  • Masami Miyaki
  • Koichi Kaji

The influences of sika deer damage on forest dynamics after 1984 were monitored inside and outside exclosures for 16 years on Nakanoshima Island, Toya Lake, Hokkaido, Japan. The occurrences of bark-stripping were restricted to a few species and happened mostly in the early 1980s. Because the trees killed by bark-stripping were scattered throughout the stand, large gaps were not formed. In deer exclosures, seedlings ≤10 cm decreased after about 10 years following gap formation because of canopy closing. We analyzed the effect of deer on forest stands using yield-density diagrams. The decrease of tree density by deer damage accelerated the growth of remaining trees, having an effect similar to artificial thinning. It is important to set up specific goals of forest structure for sustainable forest management in sika deer habitat.


Photosynthetically Active Radiation Forest Floor Forest Structure Sika Deer Deer Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Akashi, N., and T. Nakashizuka. 1999. Effects of bark-stripping by sika deer (Cervus nippon) on population dynamics of a mixed forest in Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 113:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, J. A. 1984. Principles of wildlife management. Wiley, New York, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. Gill, R. M. A., and V. Beardall. 2001. The impact of deer on woodlands: the effects of browsing and seed dispersal on vegetation structure and composition. Forestry 74:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Horsley, S. B., S. L. Stout, and D. S. DeCalesta. 2003. White-tailed deer impact on the vegetation dynamics of a northern hardwood forest. Ecological Applications 13:98–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kaji, K., and T. Yajima. 1992. Influence of sika deer on forests of Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido. Pages 215–218 in B. Bobek, K. Perzanowski, and W. Regelin, editors, Global trends in wildlife management. Transactions 18th International Union of Game Biologists Congress, Krakow 1987Google Scholar
  6. Kaji, K., and H. Takahashi. 2006. Where do density dependent effects appear? Relationship between body weight and pregnancy rate for sika deer on Nakanoshima Island. Pages 43–48 in K. Kaji, M. Miyaki, and Y. Uno, editors, Conservation and management of sika deer in Hokkaido. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  7. Kaji, K., T. Yajima, and T. Igarashi. 1991. Forage selection by deer introduced on Nakanoshima Island and its effect on the forest vegetation. Pages 52–55 in N. Maruyama, B. Bobek, Y. Ono, W. Regelin, L. Bartos, and P. R. Ratcliffe, editors, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wildlife Conservation, International Congress of Ecology 1990, Tsukuba and Yokohama, Japan. Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  8. Kikuzawa, K. 1982. Yield-density diagram for natural deciduous broad-leaved forest stands. Forest Ecology and Management 4:341–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kikuzawa, K. 1999. Theoretical relationships between mean plant size, size distribution and self thinning under one-sided competition. Annals of Botany 83:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liang, S. Y., and S. W. Seagle. 2002. Browsing and microhabitat effects on riparian forest woody seedling demography. Ecology 83:212–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Miyaki, M., and K. Kaji. 2004. Summer forage biomass and the importance of litterfall for a high-density sika deer population. Ecological Research 19:405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Reimoser, F., H. Armstrong, and R. Suchant. 1999. Measuring forest damage of ungulates: what should be considered? Forest Ecology and Management 120:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rooney, T. P. 2001. Deer impacts on forest ecosystems: A North American perspective. Forestry 74:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shimoda, K., K. Kimura, M. Kanzaki, and K. Yoda. 1994. The regeneration of pioneer tree species under browsing pressure of sika deer in an evergreen oak forest. Ecological Research 9:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Stewart, G. H., and L. E. Burrows. 1989. The impact of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus on regeneration in the coastal forests of Stewart Island, New Zealand. Biological Conservation 49:275–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Takahashi, H., and K. Kaji. 2001. Fallen leaves and unpalatable plants as alternative foods for sika deer under food limitation. Ecological Research 16:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Takatsuki, S. 1989. Effects of deer on plants and plant communities. Japanese Journal of Ecology 35:67–80. (In Japanese with English summary.)Google Scholar
  18. Takatsuki, S., and T. Gorai. 1994. Effects of sika deer on the regeneration of a Fagus crenata forest on Kinkazan Island, Northern Japan. Ecological Research 9:115–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Walters, M. B., and P. B. Reich. 1996. Are shade tolerance, survival, and growth linked? Low light and nitrogen effects on hardwood seedlings. Ecology 77:841–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masami Miyaki
    • 1
  • Koichi Kaji
    1. 1.Director of Conservation DepartmentHokkaido Institute of Environmental Sciences, Kita 19, Nishi 12, Kita-ku, SapporoHokkaidoJapan

    Personalised recommendations