Sonoporation in Developmental Biology
Recent, molecular biology techniques have accomplished a large contribution to developmental biology. Especially, gene transduction techniques are indispensable to study the roles of regulatory genes underlying embryogenesis.
Replication-competent retroviruses, transfection with lipofection and an in ovo electroporation have been established as gene transduction techniques for embryos. (Yamada et al., 1997; Muramatsu et al., 1998; Fukuda et al., 2000; Iba, 2000; Nakamura et al., 2000). Particularly, in ovo electroporation for chick embryos has been recognized as a powerful method to efficiently induce exogenous genes into target cells or tissues, and it has been widely utilized to investigate their functions during embryonic development. Because the electric current tend to affect mainly the epithelial cells of the embryo, in ovo electroporation is suitable for the studies of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In fact, large number of information relating to neuronal development has been brought from the studies using in ovo electroporation (Okafuji et al., 1999; Nakamura and Funahashi, 2001).
KeywordsChick Embryo Primitive Streak Gene Transduction Ultrasound Exposure High Ultrasound Intensity
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