Tube Test in Free-Ranging Japanese Macaques: Use of Sticks and Stones to Obtain Fruit from a Transparent Pipe

  • Ichirou Tanaka
  • Eishi Tokida
  • Haruo Takefushi
  • Toshio Hagiwara


Apes excel in tool using (Yerkes and Yerkes 1929). Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) learned to use bamboo poles as rakes and, when one was too short, to fit two together to form a longer rake (Köhler 1927). They also climbed up onto boxes to reach a banana hanging from a ceiling, and if one box was too small, would stack one box on another to gain a higher platform. This deployment of previous experience in other contexts such as using poles as rakes and boxes as a ladder is known as perceptual reorganization or insight (Köhler 1927; Manning 1972; Mackintosh 1983).


Japanese Macaque Capuchin Monkey Instrumental Conditioning Pigtailed Macaque Chacma Baboon 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ichirou Tanaka
    • 1
  • Eishi Tokida
    • 2
  • Haruo Takefushi
    • 2
  • Toshio Hagiwara
    • 2
  1. 1.Section of Language and Intelligence, Section of Ecology, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan
  2. 2.Jigokudani Monkey Park, Yamanouchi-machiNaganoJapan

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