Prior to the industrial revolution in the late 18th and the early 19th century, firms carried out virtually no systematic research and development (R&D) processes. During that time, research processes were simply conducted as “trial and error”. Inventive activity did not depend in any major way on science. Most firms were relatively small, and large firms were rather uncommon. Inventions were conducted almost exclusively by individual inventors (Bruland/ Mowery 2004).
KeywordsInventive Performance Inventor Productivity Inventive Activity Citation Count European Patent
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