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Abstract

Universities are in the focus of discussion about innovation-based economic growth in Germany, in the United States, and in other countries of the world. Historically, the university’s role in society comprised the functions of higher education and research, following Humboldt’s 19th century ideal of combining learning and research in one single institution. More recently, universities have transformed their role and extended their mission to incorporate a more commercially oriented element, based on the successes of technology transfer at universities such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (“MIT”) and Stanford University. Etzkowitz describes this transformation as the “second academic revolution”, which requires universities to act more entrepreneurially and commercially, and serve society not only by educating students, but also by fostering research which can be developed into marketable products and technologies, thereby advancing the public good and economic wealth.

Keywords

Technology Transfer Entrepreneurial Orientation Entrepreneurial Firm Academic Entrepreneurship Patent Filing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

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    National education and science ministries, government departments, and agencies in almost all industrialized countries debate this issue. As examples for Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, see BMBF (2004b) p. II, HMT (2004) p. I, NSB (2004b) p. 1, respectively. The academic basis for this debate can be found with Arrow (1962), Dasgupta and David (1994), and Rosenberg and Nelson (1994).Google Scholar
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© Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler | GWV Fachverlage GmbH, Wiesbaden 2008

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