Advertisement

Abstract

This section is about the methodological aspects of this work. The first part describes which data is collected and how it can be characterized. After this, the basis of the quantitative analysis is shown. It comprises amongst others an introduction to modeling structural equations and the fit criteria for constructs. The following part deals with the concrete measurements of constructs and the application of the fit criteria to the measurements presented before. Finally, the cluster analysis is presented.

Keywords

Internal Consistency Latent Variable Partial Little Square Early Warning Exogenous Variable 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 638.
    See Miller and Toulouse (1986), p. 1402.Google Scholar
  2. 639.
    See Ritvo, Salipante and Notz (1979), p. 229f.Google Scholar
  3. 640.
    This is for example reflected by the focus of strategic management research on large businesses. See Chaganti (1987), p. 61.Google Scholar
  4. 641.
    See Gemeinschaft (2003), p. 39.Google Scholar
  5. 642.
    See Bundesamt’ (2005), p. 101.Google Scholar
  6. 643.
    For a similar proceeding see Aust (1999), Karlshaus (2000), Dehler (2001), Frank and Reitmeyer (2003) and Steiners (2005).Google Scholar
  7. 644.
    See Bundesamt’ (2005), p. 391. This sector comprises the classification numbers 34 (manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers) and 35 (manufacture of other transport equipment). See Bundesamt (2003), p. 15.Google Scholar
  8. 645.
    See Bundesamt’ (2005), p. 391. This sector is also called manufacture of electrical and optical equipment and comprises the classification numbers 30 (manufacture of office machinery and computers), 31 (manufacture of electrical machinery and apparatus not elsewhere classified), 32 (manufacture of radio, television and communication equipment and apparatus) and 33 (manufacture of medical, precision and optical instruments, watches and clocks). See Bundesamt (2003), p. 14f.Google Scholar
  9. 646.
    See Bundesamt’ (2005), p. 391. This sector is also called manufacture of machinery and equipment not elsewhere classified. See Bundesamt (2003), p. 13.Google Scholar
  10. 647.
    See Bundesamt’ (2005), p. 391. This sector comprises the classification numbers 15 (manufacture of food products and beverages) and 16 (manufacture of tobacco products). See Bundesamt (2003), p. 15f.Google Scholar
  11. 648.
    See Bundesamt’ (2005), p. 391. For the classification see Bundesamt (2003), p. 8f.Google Scholar
  12. 649.
    See Bundesamt’ (2005), p. 391.Google Scholar
  13. 650.
    The German Bureau of Statistics does not have a detailed report about the number of organizations per branch and size. This overview was provided by the German Federal Employment Office which examines the situation and development of employment in Germany according to professions, branches and regions. See §§ 280 and 281 SGB(III) (2005). German employers inform the German Federal Employment Office about every employee who is subject to social insurance contribution. See § 28a SGB(IV) (2005). The statistics of the German Federal Employment Office comprises operating sites. An operating site (in German’ Betriebsstätte’) is an economically and regionally defined entity. See § 9.1 SGB(IV) (2005). Following this definition, one German company may have various operating sites within Germany. Consequently, this leads to a disparity between the reported number of the German Federal Employment Office and the actual number of companies. For the empirical study it was concluded that this disparity is not very important because companies with 50 to 249 employees generally have only one operating site. Despite this disparity the statistics of the German Federal Employment Office shows the structure of German industry by indicating the number of operating sites per industry sector and size.Google Scholar
  14. 651.
    See F 2 and Homburg and Baumgartner (1995), p. 1093 and Homburg (1998), p. 78.Google Scholar
  15. 652.
    See Bortz and Döring (2003), p. 253 and 53ff. For a detailed discussion of advantages and disadvantages of this method of examination see Berekhoven, Eckert and Ellenrieder (1996), p. 112ff. and Herrmann and Homburg (1999), p. 27f.Google Scholar
  16. 653.
    See Lewin and Stephens (1994) and C 2.Google Scholar
  17. 655.
    See Modick (1977).Google Scholar
  18. 657.
    See Hunt, Sparkman and Wilcox (1982), p. 265ff. and Kinnear and Taylor (1991), p. 352ff.Google Scholar
  19. 659.
    See Hambrick, Geletkanycz et al. (1993), p. 407.Google Scholar
  20. 660.
    See Bagozzi and Phillips (1982), p. 465 and Homburg and Giering (1996), p. 6.Google Scholar
  21. 661.
    See Armstrong and Overton (1977).Google Scholar
  22. 662.
    See Bliemel, Eggert, Fassott and Henseler (2005), p. 10.Google Scholar
  23. 663.
    See Diamantopoulos and Siguaw (2000), p. 1.Google Scholar
  24. 664.
    See Chin (1998), p. 297 and Fassott (2005), p. 20.Google Scholar
  25. 665.
    See Kelloway (1998), p. 2.Google Scholar
  26. 666.
    See Fornell (1987), p. 411.Google Scholar
  27. 668.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 6f., Chin (1998), p. 295 and Fassott (2005), p. 20.Google Scholar
  28. 669.
    See Kelloway (1998), p. 13.Google Scholar
  29. 670.
    See Long (1983), p. 11 and Diamantopoulos and Siguaw (2000), p. 5.Google Scholar
  30. 671.
    See Chin (1998), p. 297f., Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 721 and Bliemel, Eggert, Fassott and Henseler (2005), p. 10.Google Scholar
  31. 672.
    See Jöreskog (1966), Jöreskog (1967), Jöreskog (1969) and Jöreskog (1973).Google Scholar
  32. 673.
    See Jöreskog and Sörbom (1997).Google Scholar
  33. 674.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 722.Google Scholar
  34. 675.
    See Chin (1998), p. 297.Google Scholar
  35. 676.
    See Fassott (2005), p. 20.Google Scholar
  36. 677.
    See Wold (1973) and Wold (1975).Google Scholar
  37. 678.
    See for example Bartholomew and Knott (1999), p. l.Google Scholar
  38. 679.
    See Homburg and Giering (1996), p. 5, Churchill Jr. (1979), p. 66 and Bagozzi and Baumgartner (1994), p. 388.Google Scholar
  39. 680.
    See Bagozzi and Phillips (1982), p. 465 and Long (1983), p. 11.Google Scholar
  40. 681.
    See Homburg and Giering (1998), p. 115.Google Scholar
  41. 682.
    See Churchill Jr. (1979), p. 66 and Baumgartner and Homburg (1996), p. 144.Google Scholar
  42. 683.
    See Anderson, Gerbing and Hunter (1978), p. 435 and Law and Wong (1978), p. 147.Google Scholar
  43. 684.
    See Bagozzi and Baumgartner (1994) and Bagozzi (1994).Google Scholar
  44. 685.
    Edwards and Bagozzi (2000), p. 161. See also Chin (1998), p. 305f.Google Scholar
  45. 686.
    See Fornell (1982), p. 34. For reasons of clarity the correlation coefficients between the xi (yi) measures are not depicted in figures 18 and 19.Google Scholar
  46. 687.
    See Jarvis, Mackenzie and Podasakoff (2003), p. 201.Google Scholar
  47. 688.
    Adapted from Albers and Hildebrandt (2005), p. 13.Google Scholar
  48. 689.
    MacCallum and Browne (1993), p. 533. See also Chin (1998), p. 306f.Google Scholar
  49. 690.
    Edwards and Bagozzi (2000), p. 162.Google Scholar
  50. 691.
    Adapted from Albers and Hildebrandt (2005), p. 13.Google Scholar
  51. 692.
    See Bollen and Lennox (1991) and Heise (1972).Google Scholar
  52. 693.
    See Cohen, Cohen, Teresi, Marchi and Velez (1990).Google Scholar
  53. 694.
    See MacCallum and Browne (1993).Google Scholar
  54. 695.
    See Bollen and Lennox (1991).Google Scholar
  55. 696.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 721 and Bliemel, Eggert, Fassott and Henseler (2005), p. 10. LISREL sums up the values of the single indicators, forms an average and operates with a single index variable. Consequently the influence of a single indicator cannot be analyzed. Therefore, the covariance structure analysis does not allow the figuration of formative constructs. See Fassott (2005), p. 25 and the sources mentioned there.Google Scholar
  56. 697.
    See Chin (1998), p. 297 and Fassott (2005), p. 20.Google Scholar
  57. 698.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 716.Google Scholar
  58. 699.
    See Liehr-Gobbers (2004) Ibid., p. 730f.Google Scholar
  59. 700.
    See Craney and Surles (2002), p. 392.Google Scholar
  60. 701.
    See Cohen, Cohen, West and Aiken (2003), p. 3.Google Scholar
  61. 702.
    See Homburg and Baumgartner (1998), p. 360f.Google Scholar
  62. 703.
    See Cohen, Cohen, Teresi, Marchi and Velez (1990), p. 8ff. and p. 410ff. and Chin (1998), p. 316.Google Scholar
  63. 704.
    See Chin, Marcolin and Newsted (2003), p. 195f.Google Scholar
  64. 705.
    See Cohen, Cohen, Teresi, Marchi and Velez (1990), p. 410ff.Google Scholar
  65. 706.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 731.Google Scholar
  66. 707.
    Baron and Kenny (1986), p. 104.Google Scholar
  67. 708.
    See Chin, Marcolin and Newsted (2003), p. 193.Google Scholar
  68. 709.
    See Eggert, Fassott and Helm (2005), p. 104.Google Scholar
  69. 710.
    See Homburg and Giering (2001), p. 47.Google Scholar
  70. 711.
    See Yasai-Ardekani and Nystrom (1996), p. 195.Google Scholar
  71. 712.
    See Chin, Marcolin and Newsted (2003), p. 198f.Google Scholar
  72. 713.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 725.Google Scholar
  73. 714.
    See Liehr-Gobbers (2004) Ibid., p. 724.Google Scholar
  74. 716.
    See Yasai-Ardekani and Nystrom (1996), p. 197.Google Scholar
  75. 717.
    See Peter (1979), p. 6, Churchill Jr. (1979), p. 64ff. and Anderson and Gerbing (1988), p. 411f.Google Scholar
  76. 718.
    See Homburg and Pflesser (1999), p. 415f.Google Scholar
  77. 719.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 730f.Google Scholar
  78. 720.
    See Churchill Jr. (1987), p. 381 f.Google Scholar
  79. 721.
    See Berekhoven, Eckert and Ellenrieder (1996), p. 87.Google Scholar
  80. 722.
    See Peter (1979), p. 6 and Churchill Jr. (1987), p. 495.Google Scholar
  81. 723.
    See Nieschlag, Dichtl and Hörschgen (1997), p. 722ff.Google Scholar
  82. 724.
    See Churchill Jr. (1979), p. 65.Google Scholar
  83. 725.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 727f.Google Scholar
  84. 726.
    See Bohrnstedt (1970), p. 92.Google Scholar
  85. 727.
    See Schnell, Hill and Esser (1993), p. 163.Google Scholar
  86. 728.
    See Homburg and Giering (1996), p. 12.Google Scholar
  87. 729.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 727 and Carmines and Zeller (1979), p. 27.Google Scholar
  88. 730.
    See Hulland (1999), p. 198.Google Scholar
  89. 731.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 727 and Homburg and Baumgartner (1995), p. 170.Google Scholar
  90. 732.
    See Hulland (1999), p. 198.Google Scholar
  91. 733.
    Therefore, this value has more impact than reliability criteria at the level of the indicators. See Bagozzi and Baumgartner (1994), p. 402 and Chau (1999), p. 218f.Google Scholar
  92. 734.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 727. It is a measure similar to Cronbach’s alpha. The internal consistency was chosen for its two advantages. In contrast to Cronbach’s alpha, internal consistency considers the factor loadings of the indicators. In contrast, these loadings are all equally valued by the calculation of Cronbach’s alpha. Additionally, the value of Cronbach’s alpha correlates with the number of indicators which is not the case for internal consistency. See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 734.Google Scholar
  93. 735.
    See Fornell and Larcker (1981), p. 45.Google Scholar
  94. 736.
    See Bagozzi and Yi (1988), p. 82.Google Scholar
  95. 737.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 727. They base their minimum level on Nunnally (1978), p. 245.Google Scholar
  96. 738.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 728.Google Scholar
  97. 739.
    See Norušis (1993), p. 146.Google Scholar
  98. 740.
    See Churchill Jr. (1979), p. 68f.Google Scholar
  99. 741.
    See Ibid., p. 68.Google Scholar
  100. 742.
    See Hulland (1999), p. 199.Google Scholar
  101. 743.
    See ibid., p. 199.Google Scholar
  102. 744.
    See Bollen (1989), Kim and Mueller (1971), Nunnally (1978), Harman (1976) and Long (1983).Google Scholar
  103. 745.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004) and the sources cited there: Bollen and Lennox (1991), Cohen, Cohen, Teresi, Marchi and Velez (1990) and Chin and Gopal (1995).Google Scholar
  104. 746.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 729 and Hulland (1999), p. 201, Krafft (1999), p. 124f. and Rossiter (2002), p. 307f.Google Scholar
  105. 747.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 730 and Fornell and Larcker (1981), p. 46.Google Scholar
  106. 748.
    See Sambamurthy and Chin (1994), p. 231f.Google Scholar
  107. 749.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 729 and Chin (1998), p. 307.Google Scholar
  108. 750.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 729, Bollen and Lennox (1991), p. 308 and Jarvis, Mackenzie and Podasakoff (2003), p. 202.Google Scholar
  109. 751.
    See Grewal, Cote and Baumgartner (2004).Google Scholar
  110. 752.
    See Cohen, Cohen, West and Aiken (2003), p. 6 and Backhaus, Erichson, Plinke and Weiber (2005), p. 88ff.Google Scholar
  111. 753.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 729. For alternative measures see Willan and Watts (1978).Google Scholar
  112. 754.
    See Craney and Surles (2002), p. 392 and Ukourmunne, Gulliford and Chinn (2002), p. 479.Google Scholar
  113. 755.
    See Götz and Liehr-Gobbers (2004), p. 729 and Craney and Surles (2002), p. 392f.Google Scholar
  114. 757.
    “Eine Menge von Objekten, die durch die Ausprägungen einer Anzahl von Merkmalen charakterisiert werden, soll so in Klassen zerlegt werden, daß die zu einer Klasse gehörigen Objekte möglichst ähnlich und die Klassen untereinander möglichst unähnlich sind.” Bergs (1981), p. 4. See also Bock (1974), p. 13 and Vogel (1975), p. 1.Google Scholar
  115. 758.
    See Backhaus, Erichson, Plinke and Weiber (2005), p. 479ff., Bortz and Döring (2003), 382f. and Bergs (1981), p. 23ff.Google Scholar
  116. 759.
    For problems regarding the selection and preparation of data see Bergs (1981), p. 51ff.Google Scholar
  117. 760.
    See ibid., p. 63ff. These distance measures are also called dissimilarity measures. See Everitt, Landau and Leese (2001), p. 41.Google Scholar
  118. 761.
    See Ibid., p. 40, Chakrapani (2004), p. 61 and Borg and Groenen (2005), p. 90.Google Scholar
  119. 762.
    See Everitt, Landau and Leese (2001), p. 99 and Hartigan (1975).Google Scholar
  120. 763.
    See Jain and Dubes (1988).Google Scholar
  121. 764.
    See Guha, Rastogi and Shim (2004), p. 45.Google Scholar
  122. 765.
    See Johnson (1967) and Hubert and Schultz (1975).Google Scholar
  123. 766.
    See Backhaus, Erichson, Plinke and Weiber (2005), p. 516f. and Kohn (2005), p. 551.Google Scholar
  124. 767.
    See Bergs (1981), p. 96f. and Punj and Stewart (1983), p. 137ff. For its advantages see Breckenridge (1989), p. 150ff. and Edelbrock (1979), p. 371ff.Google Scholar
  125. 768.
    See Everitt, Landau and Leese (2001), p. 102 and Backhaus, Erichson, Plinke and Weiber (2005), p. 511.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag | GWV Fachverlage GmbH, Wiesbaden 2007

Personalised recommendations