The scale measures the extent to which managers engage in dysfunctional behaviors. The scale comprises four dimensions: gaming, focusing, smoothing and invalid reporting.


Exploratory Factor Analysis Contingency Theory Marketing Manager Employee Behavior Theory Postulate 


  1. Jaworski, B. J./ MacInnis, D. J. (1989): Marketing Jobs and Management Controls: Toward a Framework, in: Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 26, pp. 406–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ramaswami, S. N. (1996): Marketing Controls and Dysfunctional Employee Behaviors: A Test of Traditional and Contingency Theory Postulates, in: Journal of Marketing, Vol. 60, pp. 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag | GWV Fachverlage GmbH Wiesbaden 2007

Personalised recommendations