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Dynamics of the Internationalisation of European Retailing: From a National to a European Perspective

  • Bernhard Swoboda
  • Sandra Schwarz

Abstract

Internationalisation is one of the key factors of European economic development. As WTO-statistics show, world foreign trade volumes grew from US-$ 280 billion in 1970 to US-$ 8,900 in 2004 and the direct investment volumes grew from US-$ 520 billion in 1980 to 8,200 in 2003 (UNCTAD estimates a slight but steady increase for 2004; UNCTAD 2005; WTO 2005). As generally known, they are both dependent on each other: Direct investments involve trade activities and vice versa. This fact can be observed in the last decade in Japan. The former world champion in exporting is today ranked fourth among the leading exporting countries behind the USA, Germany and China.

Keywords

Foreign Market Entry Mode Home Market Food Retailer Distribution Management 
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© Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler | GWV Fachverlage GmbH, Wiesbaden 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard Swoboda
  • Sandra Schwarz

There are no affiliations available

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