an increasingly open, distributed or network-like character of innovation activities with the locus of innovation shifting from an individual entrepreneur to hybrids, consortia or networks (Bouba-Olga & Grossetti, 2007; Laursen & Salter, 2006; Chesbrough, 2006, 2003; Powell & Grodal, 2005; Gassmann & Enkel, 2005; Coombs et al., 2001; Powell & Brantley, 1992);
an increasing geographic reach of innovation activities, and a geographic topography best characterised as ‘local nodes in global networks’ (Belussi et al., 2010; Cooke, 2008; Moodysson, 2008; Coenen, 2006; Asheim & Gertler, 2005; Bathelt et al., 2004). Increasingly, innovation activities take place on different geographic scales, combining the best of local resources and expertise with global ones. Moreover, geographic scope has broadened from the traditional research countries (North America, Canada, Europe and Japan) to newcomers, particularly Russia, India, China and, to a lesser extent, Brazil (the BRICs) (Boekholt et al., 2009; Howells, 2008; UNCTAD, 2005).
KeywordsInnovation Activity Interactive Learning Spot Market Empirical Part Open Innovation Process
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