This thesis builds on contemporary observations of a qualitative change in the way research and development (R&D), invention and innovation activities take place:
  • an increasingly open, distributed or network-like character of innovation activities with the locus of innovation shifting from an individual entrepreneur to hybrids, consortia or networks (Bouba-Olga & Grossetti, 2007; Laursen & Salter, 2006; Chesbrough, 2006, 2003; Powell & Grodal, 2005; Gassmann & Enkel, 2005; Coombs et al., 2001; Powell & Brantley, 1992);

  • an increasing geographic reach of innovation activities, and a geographic topography best characterised as ‘local nodes in global networks’ (Belussi et al., 2010; Cooke, 2008; Moodysson, 2008; Coenen, 2006; Asheim & Gertler, 2005; Bathelt et al., 2004). Increasingly, innovation activities take place on different geographic scales, combining the best of local resources and expertise with global ones. Moreover, geographic scope has broadened from the traditional research countries (North America, Canada, Europe and Japan) to newcomers, particularly Russia, India, China and, to a lesser extent, Brazil (the BRICs) (Boekholt et al., 2009; Howells, 2008; UNCTAD, 2005).


Innovation Activity Interactive Learning Spot Market Empirical Part Open Innovation Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Gabler Verlag | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juliane Hartig

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