A Procedure for the Development of Fictitious Advertisements in Multi-country Research: Crafting Messages with Hard-sell and Soft-sell Appeals
This chapter describes the detailed process of fictitious ad development for a multi-country advertising research project. Fictitious ads are frequently employed in advertising research in order to avoid the influence of attitudes toward established or recognized brands. Unfortunately, all too often, researchers do not pay sufficient attention to the development and pre-testing of such fictitious ads. In this contribution, the authors propose a detailed outline of the series of steps necessary in the development of fictitious ads, as well as a means by which to pre-test the various components of the ads (Figure 1). After pre-testing of the various components (such as general theme, visuals, fictitious brand name, slogan, selected product features and desired advertising appeal), as a last step, it is essential that researchers carry out a manipulation check with the finalized ads. This process helps to ensure that the messages conveyed by the various components selected for the ads are indeed the intended ones.
KeywordsFocus Group Discussion Product Category Mountain Biker Advertising Research Skiing Visual
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Appadurai, A. (1990), “Disjuncture and difference in the global economy,” in Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, Mike Featherstone, ed. London: Sage Publications, 295-310.Google Scholar
- Bradley, S., Hitchon, J., & Thorson, E. (1994), “Hard sell versus soft sell: A comparison of American and British advertising,” in Englis, B.G. (ed.), Global and Multinational Advertising, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 141-157.Google Scholar
- Diamantopoulos, A., & Papadopoulos, N. (2009), “Assessing the cross-national invariance of formative measures: Guidelines for international business researchers,” Journal of International Business Studies, 41(February/March), 360-370.Google Scholar
- Lin, C. (2001), “Cultural values reflected in Chinese and American television advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 30(4), 83-95.Google Scholar
- Messaris, P. (1997), Visual Persuasion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Mueller, B. (1987), Reflections of culture: An analysis of Japanese and American advertising appeals,” Journal of Advertising Research, 27(3), 51-59.Google Scholar
- Nevett, T. (1992), “Differences between American and British television Advertising: Explanations and Implications,” Journal of Advertising, 21(4), 61-72.Google Scholar
- Wang, Y., Jaw, J.J., Pinkleton, B., & Morton, C. (1997), “Toward the understanding of advertising appeals in Taiwanese magazine ads and its implications,” Competitiveness, 7(1), 46-62.Google Scholar