Visiting friends & relatives (VFR)

Ambiguity of an underestimated form of tourism
  • Martin Hänsel
  • Tobias Metzner


What exactly is ‘Visiting Friends and Relatives’ (VFR) tourism? Where does its scope start and where does it end? Can visiting friends and relatives really be regarded as a form of tourism?


Local Economy Marketing Activity Local Destination International Energy Agency Trip Purpose 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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5.5 References & recommended reading

  1. Asiedu, A. (2008), Participants' Characeristics and Economic Benefits of Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) Tourism- an International Survey on the Literature with Implications for Ghana, International Journal of Tourism Research, 10, 609–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Braunlich, C. & Nadkarni, N. (1995), The importance of the VFR market to the hotel industry,Journal of Tourism Studies, 6(1), 38–47Google Scholar
  3. Burkart, A.& Medlik, S. (1994),Tourism: Past, Present, and Future, London: HeinemannGoogle Scholar
  4. Denman, E. (1998),A response to the VFR market, UK: BTA/ETB Consultancy ReportGoogle Scholar
  5. ETC (2002),Visits to Friends and Relatives, London: English Tourist BoardGoogle Scholar
  6. Jackson, R. (1990), VFR tourism: is it underestimated?,Journal of Tourism Studies, 1(2), 10–17Google Scholar
  7. Langlois, S., Theodore, J. & Ineson, M. (1999), Poland: in-bound tourism from the UK,Tourism Management, 20 , 461–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee, G., Morrison, A., Lheto, X., Webb, J. & Reid, J. (2005), VFR: is it really marginal? A financial consideration of french overseas travelers,Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(4), 340–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  11. Nickerson, N. & Bendix, D. (1991), A new look at VFR (visiting friends and relatives), Proceedings of 22ndAnnual Conference of the Travel and Tourism Research Association, 373–379Google Scholar
  12. Oppermann, M. (1995), Travel life cycle,Annals of Tourism Research, 22, 535–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Seaton, A. & C., P. (1997), Understanding VFR tourism behaviour: the first five years of the United Kingdom Tourism survey,Tourism Management, 18(6), 345–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  15. Simkins, J. (2009),The "Cheap Oil Era" is Ending Soon, Baltimore: Money MorningGoogle Scholar
  16. Wilkonson, P. (2008), Predictions, past and present: World and Caribbean tourism,Futures,Google Scholar
  17. Young, C., Corsun, D. & Baloglu, S. (2006),A Taxonomy of Hosts - Visiting friends and relatives,Annals of Tourism Research, 497–516Google Scholar

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© Gabler Verlag | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Hänsel
  • Tobias Metzner

There are no affiliations available

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