Purchasing Competence: A Stakeholder-based Framework for Chief Purchasing Officers

  • Daniel Kern
  • Roger Moser
  • Naveen Sundaresan
  • Evi Hartmann
Part of the Essays on Supply Chain Management book series (ESCM)


A specific research stream within the purchasing and supply management literature focuses on the development of purchasing competence frameworks. We apply stakeholder theory and multiple methods of data collection to develop and confirm a hierarchy-specific purchasing competence management framework for chief procurement officers and validate it using confirmatory factor analysis on empirical data from 124 multinational companies. The results reveal a significant relationship between CPO’s purchasing management competence and different purchasing performance measures confirming the appropriateness of stakeholder theory for such a competence framework.


Stakeholder Group Supply Chain Management Operation Management Stakeholder Theory Stakeholder Management 


  1. Achterkamp, Marjolein C. andJanita F. Vos (2008), “Investigating the use of the stakeholder notion in project management literature, a meta-analysis”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol.26, No.7, pp.749–757.Google Scholar
  2. Agle, Bradley R., Ronald K. Mitchell, and Jeffrey A.Sonnenfeld (1999), “Who matters to CEO’s? An Investigation of stakeholder attributes and salience, corporate performance, and CEO values”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.42, No.5, pp.507–525.Google Scholar
  3. Alchian, Armen and Harold Demsetz (1972), “Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organisation ”. American Economic Review, Vol., No.5, pp.777–795.Google Scholar
  4. Alvesson, Mats (2001), “Understanding Organizational Culture”. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, James C. (1987), “An approach for confirmatory measurement and structural equation modeling of organizational properties”, Management Science, Vol.33, No.4, pp.525–541.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, James C. and David W. Gerbing (1988), “Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol.103, No.3, pp.411–423.Google Scholar
  7. Aoderson, Matthew G. and Paul B. Katz (1998), “Strategie Sourcing”, International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  8. Armstrong, J. S. and Terry S.Overton (1977), “Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.14, No.3, pp.396–402.Google Scholar
  9. Axelsson, Bjoern, Frank Rozemeijer, and Finn Wynstra (2005), “Developing sourcing”. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Baier, Christian, Evi Hartmann, and Roger Moser (2008), “Strategic alignment and purchasing efficacy: an exploratory analysis of their impact on financial performance”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.44, No.4, pp.36–52.Google Scholar
  11. Bagozzi, Richard P. and Youjae Yi (1988), “On the evaluation of structural equation mode\s”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.16, No. l, pp.74–94.Google Scholar
  12. Beard, Donald W. and Gregory G. Dess (1981), “Corporate-Level Strategy, Business- Level Strategy, and Firm Performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.24, No.4, pp.663–688.Google Scholar
  13. Bendoly, Elliot, Eve D. Rosenzweig, and Jeff K.Stratman (2007), “Performance Metric Portfolios: A Framework and Empirical Analysis”, Production and Operations Management, Vol.16, No.2, pp.257–276.Google Scholar
  14. Bentler, Peter M. and Douglas G.Bonnet (1980), “Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures”, Psychological Bulletin. No.88, pp.588–600.Google Scholar
  15. Bentler, Peter M. (1990), “Comparative fit indexes in structural models”, Psychological Bulletin. No.107, pp.238–246.Google Scholar
  16. Berman, Shawn L., Andrew C.Wicks, Suresh Kotha, and Thomas M.Jones (1999), “Does stakeholder orientation matter? The relationship between stakeholder management and financial performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.42, No.5, pp.488–506.Google Scholar
  17. Berne, Carmen and M. E.Garcia Uceda (2008), “Criteria involved in evaluation of trade shows to visit”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol.37, No.5, pp.565–579.Google Scholar
  18. Billesbach, Thomas J., Alan Harrison, and Simon Croom-Morgan (1991), “Supplier performance measures and practices in JIT companies in the US and the UK”, International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Vol.27, No.4, pp.24–28.Google Scholar
  19. Bloom, Nicholas and John van Reenen (2007), “Measuring and explaining management practices across firms and countries”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol.122, No.4, pp. 1351–1408.Google Scholar
  20. Bollen, Kenneth A. and J. Scott Long (1993), “Testing Structural Equation Models”. Newbury Park California: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Bonaccorsi, Andrea, Silvia Giannangeli, and Cristina Rossi (2006), “Entry strategies under competing standards: Hybrid business models in the open source software industry”, Management Science, Vol.52, No.7, pp.1085–1098.Google Scholar
  22. Boonstra, Albert and Jan de Vries (2008), “Managing stakeholders around inter-organizational systems: A diagnostic approach”, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol.17, pp.190–201.Google Scholar
  23. Boyer Kenneth K.and Rohit Verma (2000), “Multiple Raters in Survey-Based Operations Management Research: A Review and Tutorial”, Production and Operations Management, Vol.9, No.2, pp.128–140.Google Scholar
  24. Browne, M. W. and Robert Cudeck (1989), “Single Sample Cross-Validation Indices for Covariance Structures”, Multivariate Behavioral Research, Vol.24, No.4, pp.445–455.Google Scholar
  25. Buysse, Kristel and Alain Verbeke (2003), “Proactive environmental strategies: a stakeholder management perspective”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol.24, No.5, pp.453–470.Google Scholar
  26. Byrd, Terry A. and Nancy W. Davidson (2003), “Examining possible antecedents of IT impact on the supply chain and its effect on firm performance”, Information & Management, Vol.41, No.2, pp.243–255.Google Scholar
  27. Byrne, Barbara M. (1994), Structural equation modeling with EQS and EQS/Windows: basic concepts, applications, and programming. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. Byrne, Barbara M. (1998), Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Cammish, Robin and Mark Keough (1991), “A strategic role for purchasing”, McKinsey Quarterly, No.3, pp.22–39.Google Scholar
  30. Carmines, Edward G. and Richard A.Zeller (1979), “Reliability and Validity Assessment”. Newbury Park, California: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Carr, Amelia S. andJohn N.Pearson (1999), “Strategically managed buyer-supplier relationships and performance outcomes”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.17, No.5, pp.497–519.Google Scholar
  32. Carr, Amelia S. and John N.Pearson (2002), “The impact of purchasing and supplier involvement on strategic purchasing and its impact on firm’s performance”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol.22, No.9, pp.1032–1053.Google Scholar
  33. Carr, Amelia S. and Larry R.Smeltzer (1997), “An empirically based operational definition of strategic purchasing”, European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, Vol.3, No.4, pp.199–207.Google Scholar
  34. Carr, Amelia S. and Larry R. Smeltzer (1999), “The relationship of strategic purchasing ot supply chain management”, European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, Vol.5, No.1, pp.43–51.Google Scholar
  35. Carr, Amelia S. and Larry R. Smeltzer (2000), “An Empirical Study of the Relationships among Purchasing Skills and Strategic Purchasing Financial Performance and Supplier Responsiveness”, The Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.36, No.3, pp.40–54.Google Scholar
  36. Carter, Joseph R. and Ram Narasimhan (1996), “Is Purchasing Really Strategic?”, International Journal of Purchasing & Materials Management, Vol.32, No.1, pp.20–28.Google Scholar
  37. Carter, Joseph R. and Ram Narasimhan (1996), “Purchasing and Supply Management: Future Directions and Trends”, International Journal of Purchasing & Materials Management, Vol.32, No.4, pp.2–12.Google Scholar
  38. Carter Phillip L., Robert M. Monczka, and Trish Mosconi (2005), Strategic performance measurement for purchasing and supply. Tempe, Arizona: Center for Strategic Supply Research.Google Scholar
  39. Cavinato, Joseph L. (1999), “Fitting purchasing to the five stages of strategic management”, European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, Vol.5, No.2, pp.75–83.Google Scholar
  40. Chen, Injazz J., Antony Paulraj, and Augustine A.Lado (2004), “Strategic purchasing, supply management, and firm performance”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.22, No.5, pp.505–523.Google Scholar
  41. Choi, Thomas Y. and Daniel R.Krause(2006), “The supply base and its complexity: Implications for transaction costs, risks, responsiveness, and innovation”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.24, No.5, pp.637–652.Google Scholar
  42. Christopher, MartinandBarbara Gaudenzi (2009), “Exploiting knowledge across networks through reputation management”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol.38, No.2, pp. 191–197.Google Scholar
  43. Churchill Jr., Gilbert A. (1979), “A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.16, No.1, pp.64–73.Google Scholar
  44. Clarkson, Max E. (1995), “A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.20, No.1, pp.92–117.Google Scholar
  45. Cohen, Morris A. andHoward Kunreuther (2007), “Operations Risk Management: Overview of Paul Kleindorfer’s Contributions”, Production and Operations Management, Vol.16, No.5, pp.525–541.Google Scholar
  46. Cohen, Wesley M. and Daniel A.Levinthal (1990), “Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.35, No. l, pp.128–152.Google Scholar
  47. Cooper, M. C. (1993), “Characteristics of supply chain management and the implications for purchasing and logistics strategy”, International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol.30, No.4, pp.13–23.Google Scholar
  48. Cousins, Paul D., Benn Lawson, and Brian Squire (2006), “An empirical taxonomy of purchasing functions”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol.26, No.7, pp.775–794.Google Scholar
  49. Cousins, Paul D. and Robert Spekman (2003), “Strategic supply and the management of inter- and intraorganisational relationships”, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.9, No. l, pp.19–29.Google Scholar
  50. Cronbach, Lee J. (1951), “Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests”, Psychometrika, Vol.16, No.3, pp.297–334.Google Scholar
  51. Crook, Russell T., Larry Giunipero, Taco H.Reus, Robert Handfield, and Susan K. Williams (2008), “Antecedents and Outcomes of Supply Chain Effectiveness: An Exploratory Investigation”, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol.20, No.2, pp.161–177.Google Scholar
  52. Das, Ajay and Ram Narasimhan (2000), “Purchasing Competence and Its Relationship with Manufacturing Performance”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.36, No.2, pp.17–28.Google Scholar
  53. Day, Marc and Scott Lichtenstein (2006), “Strategic supply management: The relationship between supply management practices, strategic orientation and their impact on organisational performance”, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.12, No.6, pp.313–321.Google Scholar
  54. Delaney, John T. and Mark A.Huselid (1996), “The impact of human resource management practices on perceptions of organizational performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.39, No.4, pp.949–969.Google Scholar
  55. DeVellis, Robert F. (2009), Scale development. 2nd Ed. Thousand Oaks, California:Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  56. Dillman, Don A. (1978), Mail and telephone surveys. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Donaldson, Thomas, and Lee E.Preston (1995), “The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.20, No. l, pp.65–91.Google Scholar
  58. D’Souza, Derrick E., and Fredrik P. Williams (2002), “Appropriateness of the stakeholder approach to measuring manufacturing performance”, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol.12, No.2, pp.227–246.Google Scholar
  59. Dyer, Jeffrey H., Dong S.Cho, and Wujin Chu (1998), “Strategic Supplier Segmentation: The next “Best Practice” in Supply Chain Management”, California Management Review, Vol.40, No.2, pp.57–77.Google Scholar
  60. Dyer, Jeffrey H. and Harbir Singh (1998), “The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage”, Academic Management Review, Vol.23, No.4, pp.660–679Google Scholar
  61. Ellram, Lisa M. and Baohong Liu (2002), “The Financial Impact of Supply Management”, Supply Chain Management Review, Vol.6, No.6, pp.30–37.Google Scholar
  62. Ellram, Lisa M. (1994), “A Taxonomy of Total Cost of Ownership Models”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol.15, No. l, pp.171–191.Google Scholar
  63. Ellram, Lisa. M. and Amelia S.Carr (1994), “Strategic purchasing: a history and review of the literature”, International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Vol.30, No.2, pp.10–22.Google Scholar
  64. Ellram, Lisa M., George A. Zsidisin, Sue P. Siferd, and Michael J. Stanly (2002), “The Impact of Purchasing and Supply Management Activities on Corporate Success”, Journal ofSupply Chain Management, Vol.37, No.1, pp.4–17.Google Scholar
  65. Englyst, Linda, Frances Jorgensen, John Johansen, and Ole S. Mikkelsen (2008), “Commodity team motivation and performance”, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Yo\.14, No. l, pp.15–27.Google Scholar
  66. Farmer, David (1981), “Developing Purchasing Strategies”, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol. ll, No. 2/3, pp.114–121.Google Scholar
  67. Flynn, Barbara B., Sadao Sakakibara, Roger G.Schroeder, Kimberly A. Bates, and E. James Flynn (1990), “Empirical research methods in operations management”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.9, No.2, pp.250–284.Google Scholar
  68. Freeman, Edward and Jeanne Liedtka (1997), “Stakeholder Capitalism and the Value Chain”, European Management Journal, Vol.15, No.3, pp.286–296.Google Scholar
  69. Freeman, Edward R. (1984), Strategic management. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  70. Frooman, Jeff(1999), “Stakeholder influence strategies”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.24, No.2, pp.191–205.Google Scholar
  71. Ghoshal, Sumantra (1987), “Globale Strategy: An organizing framework”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol.8, No.5, pp.425–440.Google Scholar
  72. Giunipero, Larry, Diane Denslow, and Reham Eltantawy (2005), “Purchasing/supply chain management flexibility: Moving to an entrepreneurial skill set”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol.34, No.6, pp.602–613.Google Scholar
  73. Giunipero, Larry, Robert Handfield, and Reham Eltantawy (2006), “Supply management’s evolution: key skill sets for the supply manager of the future”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol.26, No.7, pp.822–844.Google Scholar
  74. Giunipero, Larry and Dawn Pearcy (2000), “World Class Purchasing Skills”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.36, No.4, pp.4–13.Google Scholar
  75. Goebel, Daniel J., Greg W. Marshall, and William B. Locander (2003), “Enhancing purchasing’s strategic reputation: evidence and recommendations for future research”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.39, No.2, pp.4–14.Google Scholar
  76. Gounaris, Spiros P. (2006), “Internal-market orientation and its measurement”, Journal of Business Research, Vol.59, No.4, pp.432–448.Google Scholar
  77. Guy, Steve P., and Barrie G.Dale (1993), “The Role of Purchasing in Design: A Study in the British Defense Industry”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.29, No.3, pp.26–32.Google Scholar
  78. Hahn, Chan K., Charles A.Watts, and Kee Y.Kim (1990), “Supplier development program: a conceptual model”, Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Vol.26, No.2, pp.2–7.Google Scholar
  79. Hair, Joseph F. (1995), Multivariate data analysis. 4th Ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  80. Handfield, Robert B., Gary L.Ragatz, Kenneth J.Peterson, Robert M.Monczka(1999), “Involving suppliers in new product development”, California Management Review, Vol.42, No.1, pp.59–82.Google Scholar
  81. Harland, Christine M., Richard C.Lamming, and Paul D.Cousins (1999), “Developing the concept of supply strategy”, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol.19, No.7, pp.650–673.Google Scholar
  82. Harrison, Jeffrey S. and Caron H.St. John (1996), “Managing and partnering with external stakeholders”, The Academy of Management Executive, Vol.10, No.2, pp.46–60.Google Scholar
  83. Hendricks, Kevin B. and Vinod R.Singhal (2003), “The effect of supply chain glitches on shareholder wealth”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.21, No.5, pp.501–522.Google Scholar
  84. Hendricks, Kevin B. and Vinod R.Singhal (2005), “An Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Supply Chain Disruptions on Long-Run Stock Price Performance and Equity Risk ofthe Firm”, Production and Operations Management, Vol.14, No.1, pp.35–52.Google Scholar
  85. Hill, Craig A. and Gary D.Scudder (2002), “The use of electronic data interchange for supply chain coordination in the food industry”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.20, No.4, pp.375–387.Google Scholar
  86. Huselid, Mark A. (1995), “The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover, Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.38, No.3, pp.635–672.Google Scholar
  87. Janda, Swinder and Srivatsa Seshadri (2001), “The influence of purchasing strategies on performance”, The Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, Vol.16, No.4, pp.294–308.Google Scholar
  88. Jawahar, I. M. and Gary L.McLaughlin (2001), “Toward a descriptive stakeholder theory: An organizational lifecycle approach”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.26, No.3, pp.397–414.Google Scholar
  89. Jones, Thomas M. (1995), “Instrumental Stakeholder Theory”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.20, No.2, pp.404–437.Google Scholar
  90. Jones, Thomas M. and Andrew C.Wicks (1999), “Convergent stakeholder theory”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.24, No.2, pp.206–221.Google Scholar
  91. Joreskog, Karl G. (1993), “Testing structural equation models”, in: Bollen, Kenneth A. and Scott J. Long (Eds.) “Testing structural equation models”, Newbury Park, pp. 294–316.Google Scholar
  92. Joreskog, Karl G. and Dag Sorbom (1998), LISREL 8: structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. 4th Ed. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  93. Kamann, Dirk-Jan F. (2007), “Organizational design in public procurement: A stakeholder approach”, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.13, No.2, pp.127–136.Google Scholar
  94. Kannan, Vijay R. and Robert B.Handfield (1998), “Supply Chain Management: Supplier Performance and Firm Performance”, International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Vol.34, No.1, pp.2–9.Google Scholar
  95. Kannan, Vijay R. and Keah-Choon Tan (2003), “Attitudes of US and European managers to supplier selection and assessment and implications for business performance”, Benchmarking-Bradford, Vol.10, No.5, pp.472–489.Google Scholar
  96. Kanuk, Leslie and Conrad Berenson (1975), “Mail surveys and response rates: A literature review”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.12, No.4; pp.440–453.Google Scholar
  97. Kaufmann, Lutz and Craig R.Carter (2004), “Deciding on the Mode of Negotiation”, Journal ofSupply Chain Management, Vol.40, No.2, pp.15–26.Google Scholar
  98. Kaufmann, Lutz and Craig. R.Carter (2006), “International supply relationships and non-financial performance—A comparison of US and German practices”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.24, No.5, pp.653–675.Google Scholar
  99. Keough, Mark (1994), “Buying your way to the top”, Director, April, pp. 72–75.Google Scholar
  100. Kogut, Bruce and Udo Zander(1992), “Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology”, Organization Science, Vol.3, No.3, pp.383–397.Google Scholar
  101. Krause, Daniel R., Mark Pagell, and Sime Curkovic (2001), “Toward a measure of competitive priorities for purchasing”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.19, No.4, pp.497–512.Google Scholar
  102. Lai, Kee-hung., E. W.Ngai, and T. C.Cheng (2002), “Measures for evaluating supply chain performance in transport logistics”, Transportation Research: Part E, Vol.38, No.6, pp.439–456.Google Scholar
  103. Lambert, Douglas M. and Thomas C.Harrington (1989), “Establishing customer service strategies within the marketing mix: more empirical evidence”, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol.10, No.2, pp.44–60.Google Scholar
  104. Madsen, Henning, and John P.Ulhoi (2001), “Integrating environmental and stakeholder management”, Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol.10, No.2, pp.77–88.Google Scholar
  105. Maignan, Isabelle and Debbie T. McAlister (2003), “Socially responsible organizational buying: how can stakeholders dictate purchasing policies?”, Journal of Macromarketing, Vol.23, No.2, pp.78–89.Google Scholar
  106. Melnyk, Steven A., Douglas M.Stewart, and Morgan Swink (2004), “Metrics and performance measurement in operations management: dealing with the metrics maze”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.22, No.3, pp.209–218.Google Scholar
  107. Mitchell, Ronald K., Bradley R.Agle, and Donna J.Wood (1997), “Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: defining the principle of who and what really counts”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.22, No.4, pp.853–886.Google Scholar
  108. Monczka, Robert M., Robert J.Trent, and Thomas J.Callahan (1993), “Supply base strategies to maximize supplier performance”, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol.23, No.4, pp.42–54.Google Scholar
  109. Narasimhan, Ram and Ajay Das (2001), “The impact of purchasing integration and practices on manufacturing performance”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.19, No.5, pp.593–609.Google Scholar
  110. Narasimhan, Ram, Jayanth Jayaram, and Joseph R.Carter (2001), “An empirical examination of the underlying dimensions of purchasing competence”, Production and Operations Management, Vol.10, No. l, pp.1–15.Google Scholar
  111. Neely, And y, John Mills, Ken Platts, Huw Richards, Mike Gregory, Mike Bourne, and Mike Kennerley (2000), “Performance measurement system design: developing and testing a process-based approach”, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol.20, No.9/10, pp.1119–1145.Google Scholar
  112. Newman, Rocky W. and Timothy C.Krehbiel (2007), “Linear performance pricing”, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.13, No.2, pp.152–165.Google Scholar
  113. Nunnally, Jum C. (1978), Psychometric theory. 2th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  114. Ogden, Stuart and Robert Watson (1999), “Corporate Performance and stakeholder management: Balancing stakeholder and customer interests in the U.K. privatized water industry “, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.42, No.5, pp.526–538.Google Scholar
  115. Pagell, Mark (2004), “Understanding the factors that enable and inhibit the integration of operations, purchasing and logistics”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol.22, No.5, pp.459–487.Google Scholar
  116. Pagell, Mark, Ajay Das, Sime Curkovic, and Liane Easton (1996), “Motivating the Purchasing Professional”, International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Vol.32, No.3, pp.27–34.Google Scholar
  117. Pagell, Mark and Daniel R.Krause (2002), “Strategic consensus in the internal supply chain: exploring the manufacturing-purchasing link”, International Journal of Production Research, Vol.40, No.13, pp.3075–3092.Google Scholar
  118. Pearson, John N. and Karen J.Gritzmacher (1990), “Integrating Purchasing into Strategic Management”, Long Range Planning, Vol.23, No.3, pp.91–99.Google Scholar
  119. Pearson, John N., Lisa M.Ellram, and Craig R.Carter (1996), “Status and Recognition of the Purchasing Function in the Electronics Industry”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.32, No.2, pp.30–36.Google Scholar
  120. Peter, Paul J. (1981), “Construct Validity: A Review of Basic Issues and Marketing Practices”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.18, No.2, pp.133–145.Google Scholar
  121. Podsakoff, Philip M., Scott B.Mackenzie, Jeong Yeon Lee, and Nathan P. Podsakoff (2003), “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.88, No.5, pp.879–903.Google Scholar
  122. Pouloudi, Athanasia and Edgar A.Whitley (1997), “Stakeholder identification in inter- organizational systems: Gaining insights for drug use”, European Journal of Information Systems, Vol.6, No.1, pp.1–14.Google Scholar
  123. Powell, Walter W. (1990), “Neither market nor hierarchy: network forms of organization”, Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.12, pp.295–336.Google Scholar
  124. Purvis, Russell L., Vallabh Sambamurthy, and Robert W.Zmud (2001), “The assimilation of knowledge platforms in organisations: an empirical investigation”, Organization Science, Vol.12, No.2, pp.117–135.Google Scholar
  125. Preston, Lee E. and Thomas Donaldson (1999), “Stakeholder Management and Organizational Wealth”, Academy of Management Review, Vol.24, No.4, pp.619–620.Google Scholar
  126. Quintens, Lieven, Pieter Pauwels, and Paul Matthyssens (2006), “Global purchasing strategy: Conceptualization and measurement”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol.35, No.7, pp.881–891.Google Scholar
  127. Ramsay, John (2004), “Serendipity and the realpolitik of negotiations in supply chains”, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol.9, No.3, pp.219–229.Google Scholar
  128. Ramsay, John and Simon Croom (2008), “The impact of evolutionary and developmental metaphors on Purchasing and Supply Management: A critique”, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.14, No.3, pp.192–204.Google Scholar
  129. Reck, Robert F. and Brian G.Long (1988), “Purchasing: A Competitive Weapon”, Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Vol.24, No.3, pp.2–8.Google Scholar
  130. Rinehart, Lloyd M. (1992), “Global logistics partnership negotiation”, Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol.22, No.1, pp.27–34.Google Scholar
  131. Sanchez-Rodriguez, Cristobal and Angel R. Martinez-Lorente (2004), “Quality management practices in the purchasing function: An empirical study”, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol.24, No.7, pp.666–687.Google Scholar
  132. Savage, Grant T., Timothy W.Nix, Carlson J.Whitehead, and John D.Blair (1991), “Strategies for assessing and managing organizational stakeholders”, The Executive, Vol.5, No.2, pp.61–75.Google Scholar
  133. Schwab, Donald P. (1980), “Construct validity in organizational behavior”, in L.L.Cummings and B.Staw (Eds.)Research in Organization Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, pp.3–43.Google Scholar
  134. Scott, Susanne G. and Vicki R.Lane (2000), “A stakeholder approach to organizational identity “, Academy of Management Review, Vol.25, No.1, pp.43–62.Google Scholar
  135. Shortell, Stephen M. and Edward J.Zajac (1990), “Research notes. Perceptual and archival measures of Miles and Snow’s strategic types: A comprehensive assessment of reliability and validity”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.33, No.4, pp.817–832.Google Scholar
  136. Simsek, Zeki, John F. Veiga, Michael H.Lubatkin, and Richard N.Dino (2005), “Modeling the multilevel determinants of top management team behavioral integration”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.48, No.1, pp.69–84.Google Scholar
  137. Smeltzer, Larry R. and Sue P.Siferd (1998), “Proactive Supply Management: The Management of Risk”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.34, No.1, pp.38–45.Google Scholar
  138. Smeltzer, Larry R., Jennifer A.Manship, and Christian L.Rossetti (2003), “An Analysis of the Integration of Strategic Sourcing and Negotiation Planning”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.39, No.4, pp.16–25.Google Scholar
  139. Spekman, Robert E., John W.Kamauff, and Deborah J.Salmond (1994), “At last purchasing is becoming strategic”, Long Range Planning, Vol.27, No.2, pp.76–84.Google Scholar
  140. Spekman, Robert E., John W. Kamauff, and Joseph Spear (1999), “Toward more effective sourcing and supplier management”, European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.5, No.2, pp.103–116.Google Scholar
  141. Stuart, Ian F. (1991), “Purchasing in an R&D environment: effective teamwork in business”, International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, Vol.27, No.4, pp.9–34.Google Scholar
  142. Stuart, Ian F. (1993), “Supplier Partnerships: Influencing Factors and Strategic Benefits”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.29, No.4, pp.21–29.Google Scholar
  143. Tassabehji, Rana and Andrew Moorhouse (2008), “The changing role of procurement: Developing professional effectiveness”, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.14, No. l, pp.55–68.Google Scholar
  144. Tomlin, Brian (2006), “On the Value of Mitigation and Contingency Strategies for Managing Supply Chain Disruption Risks”, Management Science, Vol.52, No.5, pp.639–657.Google Scholar
  145. Tracey, Michael (2004), “A Holistic Approach to New Product Development: New Insights”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.40, No.4, pp.37–55.Google Scholar
  146. Trent, Robert J. (2004), “The Use of Organizational Design Features in Purchasing and Supply Management”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.40, No.3, pp.4–18.Google Scholar
  147. Trent, Robert J. and Robert M.Monczka (2003), “Understanding integrated global sourcing”, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol.33, No.7, pp.607–629.Google Scholar
  148. Ungerman, Drew and Chip Hardt (2008), “Talent Matters”, Supply Chain Management Review, Vol.12, No.4, pp.16–24.Google Scholar
  149. Virolainen, Veli-Matti (1998), “A survey of procurement strategy development in industrial companies”, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol.56–57, No.20, pp.677–688.Google Scholar
  150. Van Weele, Arjan J.(1984), “Purchasing Control: Performance Measurement and Evaluation of the Industrial Purchasing Function”. Groningen: Wolters Nordhof.Google Scholar
  151. Van Weele, Arjan J. (2005), “Purchasing & supply chain management: Analysis, strategy, planning and practice”5th Ed. London: Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  152. Wagner, Stephan M. and Christoph Bode (2006), “An empirical investigation into supply chain vulnerability”, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Vol.12, No.6, pp.301–312.Google Scholar
  153. Wang, Yong and Pervaiz K.Ahmed (2009), “The moderating effect of the business strategic orientation on eCommerce adoption: Evidence from UK family run SMEs”, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol.18, No. l, pp.16–30.Google Scholar
  154. Watts, Charles A. and Chan K.Hahn (1993), “Supplier Development Programs: An Empirical Analysis”, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol.29, No.2, pp.10–17.Google Scholar
  155. Wynstra, Finn J. Y. and Rob H. van Stekelenborg (1996), “The Role of Purchasing in New Product Development: Results of a Dutch Working Group”, Proceedings of the 5thInternationalAnnual IPSERA Conference, pp. 101–121.Google Scholar
  156. Youndt, Mark A., Scott A.Snell, James W.Dean,. and David P.Lepak (1996), “Human resource management, manufacturing strategy, and firm performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.39, No.4, pp.836–866.Google Scholar
  157. Zhu, Qinghua, Joseph Sarkis, and Kee-hong Lai (2008), “Confirmation of a measurement model for green supply chain management practices implementation”, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. lll, No.2, pp.261–273.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Gabler Verlag | Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Kern
  • Roger Moser
  • Naveen Sundaresan
  • Evi Hartmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations