Research gap and contribution
To identify the research gap and guide the analysis, the present study draws upon two literature streams that inform understanding of effectiveness of early stages of the innovation process for radical innovations from academia, with a sectorial focus on biotechnology. The analysis of existing research was done in a structured literature review.7 Firstly, this chapter focuses on literature relating to management of radical innovations in the early stage of the innovation process within the domain of innovation management research. Secondly, the focus is on literature in technology transfer, which describes the effective transfer of technologies and innovations from academia to other organisations through spin-off creation, licensing, or other forms. The research gap is summarised after discussing each literature stream. At the end of the chapter, the expected contribution to current research and practice is summarised.