Institutionalized cooperation between public and private actors is not a recent phenomenon in world politics. In the 16th century, the British Empire had its navy largely financed by powerful merchants and aristocratic landowners, a practice known as privateering: when the royal navy defeated the Spanish Armada during the Anglo–Spanish war in 1588, 163 out of 197 vessels involved were privately owned (Andrews, 1964). In the 17th century, the British set up so-called proprietary governments in North America and the Caribbean which only gradually got replaced by public officials. During the following era of colonial expansion, trading entities such as the Dutch and English East Indies Companies operated under the permission of their home governments as near-sovereign powers, commanding large armies and navies, negotiating their own treaties, governing their own territory, and even minting their own money (Keir, 1969; Tracy, 1993; Singer, 2002).
KeywordsCivil Society Civil Society Organization Global Public Good Partner Institution Global Partnership
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