Innumerable studies have addressed performance analysis and impacts of using the sensory modalities vision and hearing in vehicles. Both of these communication channels have potential, but also drawbacks. Tactile feedback as a promising additional source of information is still underused in vehicles today [321, p. 9] and thus, worthwhile to investigate. Suzuki et al.  found, for instance, that vibro-tactile feedback on the steering wheel was effective for warning of lane-departure situations, especially for ad-hoc notifications (where drivers did not know the meaning of warnings). Moreover, their experiments showed that it seems that many drivers have their own mental model for responding to a haptic stimulus [transmitted through the steering wheel]. Apart from using haptics in automotive applications as single information channel, there was also general concurrence with Wheatley and Hurwitz  who recommended using multimodal interfaces (a combination of visual, auditory, and haptic sensory channels) for safe and effective future Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.
KeywordsAdaptive Cruise Control Advance Driver Assistance System Pacinian Corpuscle Tactile Pattern Cutaneous Mechanoreceptor
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