What can molecular imaging tell us about schizophrenia?
The term molecular imaging refers in this review to a type of nuclear medicine procedure in which a molecule of interest is labelled with an isotope (positron or single photon emitting nuclide), and acts as a molecular ‘key’ (or radioligand), fitting into a cellular recognition site (receptor, transporter protein or enzymatic pathway) with molecular-level specificity. The radioligand is injected into the bloodstream, passes through the blood brain barrier and binds to a site of interest. When bound, the emitted radiation is detected by a ring of detectors surrounding the head, and a map of radioactive density is produced, reflecting a chemical map of radioligand binding. Thus neurotransmitter systems in the living human brain may be studied relatively noninvasively.
KeywordsAntipsychotic Drug Single Photon Emission Tomography Atypical Antipsychotic Drug Typical Antipsychotic Drug Living Human Brain
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bigliani V, Mulligan RS, Acton PD, Visvikis D, Ell PJ, Stephenson C, Kerwin RW, Pilowsky LS (1999) In vivo occupancy of striatal and temporal cortical D2/D3 dopamine receptors by typical antipsychotic drugs - a [123I] epidepride single photon emission tomography (SPET) study, Brit J Psychiatry 175:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bigliani V, Mulligan RS, Acton PD, Ohlsen RI, Pike VW, Ell PJ, Gacinovic S, Kerwin RW, Pilowsky LS (2000) Striatal and temporal cortical D2/D3 receptor occupancy by olanzapine - a123I epidepride single photon emission tomography (SPET) study. Psychopharmacology 150:132–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bressan RA, Erlandsson K, Mulligan RS, Gunn RN, Cunningham VJ, Owens J, Ell PJ, Pilowsky LS (2003) Evaluation of NMDA receptors in vivo in schizophrenic patients with [123I] CNS 1261 and SPET; proceedings: glutamate and disorders of cognition and motivation. New York Acad Sciences Conference, April 2003, 8Google Scholar
- Connell P (1958) Amphetamine Psychosis. Maudsley Monograph No 5. Oxford University Press, London (pubs)Google Scholar
- Farde L, Nordstrom AL, Wiesel A, Pauli S, Halldin C, Sedvall G (1992) Positron emission tomography analysis of central D1 and D2 dopamine receptor occupancy in patients treated with classical neuroleptics and clozapine: relation to extrapyramidal side-effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:538–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gefvert O, Bergstrom M, Langstrom B, Lundberg T, Lindstrom L, Yates R (1998) Time course of central nervous dopamine-D2 and 5-HT2 receptor blockade and plasma drug concentrations after discontinuation of quetiapine (Seroquel) in patients with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 135(2):119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD, Carney MWP, Price JS (1978) Mechanisms of the antipsychotic effect in the treatment of acute schizophrenia. Lancet i:848–851Google Scholar
- Laruelle M, Abi-Dargham A, Van Dyck CH, Gil R, D’Souza CD, Erdos J, McCance E, Rosenblatt W, Fingado C, Zoghbi SS, Baldwin RM, Seibyl JP, Krystal JH, Charney DS (1996) Single photon emission computerized tomography imaging of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in drug-free schizophrenic subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93/17:9235–9240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martinot J-L, Palliere-Martinot ML, Loc’h C et al (1991)The estimated density of D2 striatal receptors in schizophrenia - a study with positron emission tomography and 76Br-bromolisuride. 158:346–350Google Scholar
- Tauscher J, Kapur S, Verhoeff NP, Hussey DF, Daskalakis ZJ, Tauscher-Wisniewski S, Wilson AA, Houle S, Kasper S, Zipursky RB (2002) Brain serotonin 5-HT(1A) re-ceptor binding in schizophrenia measured by positron emission tomography and [11C]WAY-100635. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59(6):514–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar