Advertisement

Discussion: The genetics of psychosis is the genetics of the speciation of Homo sapiens

  • T. J. Crow

Abstract

If we agree that the one conclusion that we can be sure of in the aetiology of psychosis is that there is a genetic contribution the identification of the relevant gene or genes overrides anything else. The contributions to this session illustrate a diversity of approaches; do they approach the core of the problem?

Keywords

Bipolar Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder Planum Temporale Directional Asymmetry Schizophrenia Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Annett M (1985) Left, Right, Hand and Brain: The Right Shift Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Annett, M (2002) Handedness and Brain Asymmetry: The Right Shift Theory. Psychology Press, Hove, SussexGoogle Scholar
  3. Badner J, Gershon ES (2002) Meta-analysis of whole-genome linkage scans of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 7:405–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartley AJ, Jones DW, Torrey EF et al (1993) Sylvian fissure asymmetries in monozygotic twins: a test of laterality in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 34:853–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bickerton, D (1990) Language and Species. University of Chicago, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  6. Bird ED, Spokes EG, Barnes J et al (1977) Increased brain dopamine and reduced glutamic acid decarboxylase and choline acetyl transferase activity in schizophrenia and related psychoses. Lancet 2:1157–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blanco P, Sargent CA, Boucher C et al (2000) Conservation of PCDHX in mammals; expression of human X/Y genes predominantly in the brain. Mammalian Genome 11:906–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broca P (1861) Remarques sur la siegé de la faculté du langue. Bulletin de la Société Anatomique de Paris (2nd series) 6:330–357Google Scholar
  9. Buxhoeveden D, Switala AE, Litaker M et al (2001) Lateralization of minicolumns in human planum temporale is absent in nonhuman primate cortex. Brain Behavioural Evolution 57:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carson HL (1997) Sexual selection: a driver of genetic change in Hawaiian Drosophila. Journal of Heredity 88:343–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chance SA, Esiri MM, Crow TJ (2002) Amygdala volume in schizophrenia: post-mortem study and review of magnetic resonance imaging findings. British Journal of Psychiatry 180:331–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Corballis MC, Lee K, McManus IC et al (1996) Location of the handedness gene on the X and Y chromosomes. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 67:50–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crow TJ (1993) Sexual selection, Machiavellian intelligence and the origins of psychosis. Lancet 342:594–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crow TJ (1994) The case for an X-Y homologous determinant of cerebral asymmetry. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 67:393–394Google Scholar
  15. Crow TJ (1995a) A continuum of psychosis, one human gene and not much else - the case for homogeneity. Schizophrenia Research 17:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crow TJ (1995b) Constraints on concepts of pathogenesis: language and the speciation process as the key to the etiology of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 52:1011–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crow TJ (1997) Is schizophrenia the price that Homo sapiens pays for language? Schizophrenia Research 28:127–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crow TJ (1998) Nuclear schizophrenic symptoms as a window on the relationship between thought and speech. British Journal of Psychiatry 173:303–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crow TJ (1999) Commentary on Klaening: twin studies of psychosis and the genetics of cerebral asymmetry. British Journal of Psychiatry 175:399–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crow TJ (2000) Schizophrenia as the price that Homo sapiens pays for language: a resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species. Brain Research Reviews 31:118–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crow TJ (2002) Introduction. In: Crow TJ (ed) The Speciation of Modern Homo Sapiens. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  22. Cullen TJ, Walker MA, Parkinson N et al (2000) A postmortem study of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 60:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daniel DG, Goldberg TE, Gibbons RD et al (1991) Lack of a bimodal distribution of ventricular size in schizophrenia: a Gaussian mixture analysis of 1056 cases and controls. Biological Psychiatry 30:886–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DeLisi LE, Craddock N, Detera-Wadleigh SD et al (2000) Update on chromosomal locations for psychiatric disorders: report of the Interim Meeting of Chromosome Workshop Chairpersons from the VIIth World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics, Monterey, California, October 14–18, 1999. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 96:434–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DeLisi LE, Crow TJ (1999) Chromosome Workshops 1998: current state of psychiatric linkage. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 88: 215–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DeLisi LE, Shaw S, Crow TJ et al (2002) A genome-wide scan for linkage to chromosomal regions in 382 sibling pairs with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:803–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DeLisi LE, Wise CD, Bridge TP et al (1981) A probable neuroleptic effect on platelet monamine oxidase in chronic schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Research 4:95–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gershon ES, DeLisi LE, Hamovit J et al (1988) A controlled family study of chronic psychoses: schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 45:328–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Geschwind N, Levitsky W (1968) Human brain: left-right asymmetry in temporal speech region. Science 161:186–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harris R, Talbot TJ (1997) Landmarks in Linguistic Thought 1. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Heckers S, Heinsen H, Heinsen YC et al (1990) Limbic structures and lateral ventricle in schizophrenia. A quantitative postmortem study. Archives of General Psychiatry 47:1016–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heinrichs RW, Zakzanis KK (1998) Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology 12:426–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Highley JR, DeLisi LE, Roberts N et al (2003) Sex-dependent effects of schizophrenia: an MRI study of gyral folding, and cortical and white matter volume. Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 124:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Holder MK (1999) Influences and constraints on manual asymmetry in wild African primates: reassessing implications for the evolution of human handedness and brain lateralization (Dissertation Abstracts International Section A). Humanities and Social Sciences 60:470Google Scholar
  35. Huxley J, Mayr E, Osmond H et al (1964) Schizophrenia as a genetic morphism. Nature 204:220–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jablensky A, Sartorius N, Ernberg G et al (1992) Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization Ten Country Study. Psychological Medicine 22 (Suppl 20):1–97Google Scholar
  37. Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD et al (1976) Cerebral ventricular size and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet 1992 ii:924–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaneshiro KY (1980) Sexual isolation, speciation and the direction of evolution. Evolution 34:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kety SS (1959a) Biochemical theories of schizophrenia (part 1). Science 129:1528–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kety SS (1959b) Biochemical theories of schizophrenia (part 2). Science 129:1590–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kuttner RE, Lorincz AB, Swan DA (1967) The schizophrenia gene and social evolution. Psychological Reports 20:407–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lewis CM, Levinson DF, Wise LH et al (2003) Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder II: schizophrenia. American Journal of Human Genetics 73:34–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maier W, Lichtermann D, Minges J et al (1993) Continuity and discontinuity of affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 50:871–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marchant LF, McGrew WC (1996) Laterality of limb function in wild chimpanzees of Gombe National Park: comprehensive study of spontaneous activities. Journal of Human Evolution 30:427–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McGrew WC, Marchant LF (1997) On the other hand: current issues in and meta-analysis of the behavioral laterality of hand function in nonhuman primates. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 40:201–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McManus IC (1991) The inheritance of left-handedness. In: Bock GR, Marsh J (eds) Biological Asymmetry and Handedness (CIBA Foundation Symposium 162). Wiley, Chichester, pp 251–281Google Scholar
  47. Mellars P (2002) Archaeology and the origins of modern humans: European and African perspectives. In: Crow TJ (ed) The Speciation of Modern Homo Sapiens. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 31–48Google Scholar
  48. Murphy DL, Wyatt RJ (1972) Reduced MAO acitivity in blood platelets from schizophrenic patients. Nature 238:225–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Murphy JM (1976) Psychiatric labelling in a cross-cultural perspective. Science 191:1019–1028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Noble W, Davidson I (1996) Human Evolution, Language and Mind. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Nopoulos PC, Magnotta V, O’Leary D et al (2003) Cortical surface abnormalities in patients with first episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 60:203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Owen F, Bourne RC, Crow TJ et al (1981) Platelet monoamine oxidase activity in acute schizophrenia: relationship to symptomatology and neuroleptic medication. Brit J Psychiatry 139:16–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Owen F, Bourne RC, Crow TJ et al (1976) Platelet monoamine oxidase in schizophrenia. An investigation in drug-free chronic hospitalized patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 33:1370–1373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Paterson HEH (1985) The recognition concept of species. In: Vrba ES (ed) Species and Speciation. Transvaal Museum Monograph, Pretoria, pp 21–29Google Scholar
  55. Reveley MA, Reveley AM, Baldy R (1987) Left hemisphere hypodensity in discordant schizophrenic twins: a controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry 44:625–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sallet PC, Elkis H, Alves TM et al (2003) Reduced cortical folding in schizophrenia: an MRI morphometric study. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:1606–1613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schwartz A, Chan DC, Brown LG et al (1998) Reconstructing hominid Y evolution: X-homologous block, created by X-Y transposition, was disrupted by Yp inversion through LINE-LINE recombination. Human Molecular Genetics 7:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Segurado R, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Gill M et al (2003) Bipolar disorder geonome scan meta-analysis. American Journal of Human Genetics 73:49–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Spokes EG (1979) An analysis of factors influencing measurements of dopamine, nor-adrenaline, glutamate decarboxylase and choline acetylase in human post-mortem brain tissue. Brain 102:333–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stassen HH, Scharfetter C, Winokur G et al (1988) Familial syndrome patterns in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, mania, and depression. European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Science 237:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Steinmetz H, Herzog A, Schlaug G et al (1995) Brain (a)symmetry in monozygotic twins. Cerebral Cortex 5:296–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stringer C, McKie R (1996) African Exodus: the Origins of Modern Humanity. J Cape, LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. Suddath RL, Christison GW, Torrey EF et al (1990) Anatomical abnormalities in the brains of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine 322:789–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tkachev D, Mimmack ML, Ryan MM et al (1972) Oligodendrocyte dysfunction in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Lancet 362:798–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Torrey EF, Bowler AE, Taylor EH et al (1994) Schizophrenia and Manic-Depressive Disorder. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  66. Vita A, Dieci M, Silenzi C et al (2000) Cerebral ventricular enlargement as a generalized feature of schizophrenia: a distribution analysis on 502 subjects. Schizophrenia Research 44:25–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Walker MA, Highley JR, Esiri MM et al (2002) Estimated neuronal populations and volumes of the hippocampus and its subfields in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 150:821–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. White T, Andreasen NC, Nopoulos P et al (2003) Gyrification abnormalities in child-hood and adolescent onset schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 54:418–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Williams NA, Crow TJ (2002) Domain-specific positive selection on gametologues Protocadherin Y and X in hominid evolution (submitted)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. J. Crow
    • 1
  1. 1.SANE POWICWarneford HospitalOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations