Advertisement

Childhood meningitis and adult schizophrenia

  • Wagner F. Gattaz
  • André L. Abrahão
  • Roberto Foccacia
Conference paper

Abstract

The fact that the rates of concordance for schizophrenia among monozygotic twins is far below 100% proves that non-genetic factors must be operant for the development or not of the disease. Such factors have frequently been discussed as related to the environment and were recently summarized elsewhere (Häfner 2002). They comprise obstetric complications, maternal psychopathology during pregnancy, intrauterine factors such as growth retardation, viruses, nutrition and low birth weight. Moreover, the risk of psychosis was also found to be influenced by factors such as urbanicity and migration respectively, two environmental factors that are complex because they comprise a series of elements such as culture, socioeconomics, infection and pollution.

Keywords

Olfactory Bulb Personality Disorder Auditory Cortex Obstetric Complication Influence Gene Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrade LHSG, Lólio CA, Gentil V, Laurenti R (1999) Epidemiologia dos transtornos mentais em urna área definida de captação da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Rev Psiq Clin 26:257–261; also available at http://www.hcnet.usp.br/ipq/revista/r265/artigo(257).htm Google Scholar
  2. Huttenlocher PR, de Courten C, Garey LJ, Van der Loos H (1982) Synaptogenesis in human visual cortex - evidence for synapse elimination during normal development. Neurosci Lett 33:247–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Huttenlocher PR (1984) Synapse elimination and plasticity in developing human cerebral cortex. Am J Ment Defic 88:488–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Huttenlocher PR, de Courten C (1987) The development of synapses in striate cortex of man. Hum Neurobiol 6:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Huttenlocher PR, Dabholkar AS (1997) Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol 387:167–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Janca A, Hiller W (1996) ICD-10 Checklists - A tool for clinicians use of the ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry 37: 180–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lagercrantz H, Ringstedt T (2001) Organization of the neuronal circuits in the central nervous system during development. Acta Paediatr 90:707–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. O’Kusky JR (1985) Postnatal changes in the numerical density and total number of asymmetric and symmetric synapses in the hypoglossal nucleus of the rat. Brain Re Dev Brain Res 108:179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Meisami E, Firoozi M (1985) Acetylcholinesterase activity in the developing olfactory bulb: a biochemical study on normal maturation and the influence of peripheral and central connections. Brain Res 353:115–124PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wagner F. Gattaz
    • 1
  • André L. Abrahão
    • 1
  • Roberto Foccacia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations