Advertisement

Gender differences in schizophrenia

  • Heinz Häfner
Conference paper

Abstract

Sex differences, whether in the premorbid stage, age at onset, symptomatology, brain morphology or illness course, are a long-pursued, but still fascinating topic of schizophrenia research.

Keywords

Gender Difference Life Satisfaction Illness Onset Social Disability Disability Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach TM (1989) Internalizing disorders: subtyping based on parental questionnaires. In: Schmidt MH, Remschmidt H (eds) Needs and Prospects of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Hogrefe and Huber Publishers, Toronto, Lewiston, Bern, pp 83–92Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach TM, Verhulst FC, Baron GD, Althaus M (1987) A comparison of syndromes derived from the Child Behavior Checklist for American and Dutch boys aged 6–11 and 12–16. J Child Psychology Psychiatry 28:437–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreasen NC (1983) The scale for the assessment of negative symptoms (SANS). University of Iowa, Iowa CityGoogle Scholar
  4. Albus M, Maier W (1995) Lack of gender differences in age at onset in familial schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Res 18:51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. an der Heiden W, Krumm B, Müller S, Weber I, Biehl H, Schäfer M (1995) Mannheimer Langzeitstudie der Schizophrenie. Nervenarzt 66:820–827Google Scholar
  6. an der Heiden W, Krumm B, Müller S, Weber I, Biehl H, Schäfer M (1996) Eine prospektive Studie zum Langzeitverlauf schizophrener Psychosen: Ergebnisse der 14Jahres-Katamnese. ZMP 5:66–75Google Scholar
  7. Angermeyer MC, Kühn L (1988) Gender differences in age at onset of schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 237:351–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angermeyer MC, Kühn L, Goldstein JM (1990) Gender and the course of schizophrenia: differences in treated outcomes. Schizophrenia Bull 16:293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Behl C (2002) Neuroprotective effects of estrogens in the central nervous system: mechanisms of action. In: Häfner H (ed) Risk and Protective Factors in Schizophrenia. Steinkopff, Darmstadt, pp 263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biehl H, Maurer K, Schubart C, Krumm B, Jung E (1986) Prediction of outcome and utilization of medical services in a prospective study of first onset schizophrenics - results of a prospective 5-year follow-up study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 236:139–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biehl H, Maurer K, Jablensky A, Cooper JE, Tomov T (1989) The WHO Psychological Impairments Rating Schedule (WHO/PIRS). I. Introducing a new instrument for rating observed behaviour and the rationale of the psychological impairment concept. Br J Psychiatry 155:68–70Google Scholar
  12. Bland RC (1977) Demographic aspects of functional psychoses in Canada. Acta Psychiatr Scand 55:369–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Castle DJ (1999) Gender and age at onset in schizophrenia. In: Howard R, Rabins P, Castle D (eds) Late Onset Schizophrenia. Wrightson Biomedical, Hampshire, pp 147–164Google Scholar
  14. Castle DJ, Murray RM (1993) The epidemiology of late-onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bull 4:691–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Castle DJ, Wessely S, Murray RM (1993) Sex and schizophrenia: effects of diagnostic stringency, and association with premorbid variables. Br J Psychiatry 162:658–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Choquet M, Ledoux S (1994) Epidémiologie et adolescence. In: Confrontations psychiatriques, vol 27 (no 35). Rhone-Poulenc rorer specia, Paris, pp 287–309Google Scholar
  17. Crow TJ, Done DJ, Sacker A (1995) Birth cohort study of the antecedents of psychosis: ontogeny as witness to phylogenetic origins. In: Häfner H, Gattaz WF (eds) Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, vol III. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalton K (1959) Menstruation and acute psychiatric illness. Br Med J 1:148–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DeLisi LE, Bass N, Boccio A, Shilds G, Morganti C, Vita A (1994) Age of onset in fa-milial schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:334–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DiPaolo T, Falardeau P (1985) Modulation of brain and pituitary dopamine receptors by estrogens and prolactin. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 9:473–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Döpfner M, Pluck J, Berner W, Fegert JM, Huss M, Lenz K, Schmeck K, Lehmkuhl U, Poustka F, Lehmkuhl G (1997) Psychische Auffälligkeiten von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Studie: Methodik, Alters-, Geschlechts-und Beurteilereffekte (Mental disturbances in children and adolescents in Germany. Results of a representative study: age, gender and rater effects). Zeitschrift für Kinder-und Jugendpsychiatrie Psychotherapie 25:218–233Google Scholar
  22. Endo M, Daiguji M, Asano Y, Yanashita I, Lakahashi S (1978) Periodic psychosis occurring in association with the menstrual cycle. J Clin Psychiatry 39:456–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Esser G, Schmidt MH, Blanz B, Fätkenheuer B, Fritz A, Koppe T, Laucht M, Rensch B, Rothenberger W (1992) Prävalenz und Verlauf psychischer Störungen im Kindes-und Jugendalter (Prevalence and follow-up of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence). Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr 20:232–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fields JZ, Gordon JH (1982) Estrogen inhibits the dopaminergic supersensitivity induced by neuroleptics. Life Sciences 30:229–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fink G, Sumner B, McQueen JK, Wilson H, Rose R (1998) Sex steroid control of mood, mental state and memory. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 25:764–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fitzgerald P, Seeman MV (2000) Women and schizophrenia: treatment implications. In: Castle DJ, McGrath J, Kulkarni J (eds) Women and Schizophrenia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 95–110Google Scholar
  27. Gattaz WF, Behrens S, De Vrie J, Häfner H (1992) Östradiol hemmt Dopamin-vermittelte Verhaltensweisen bei Ratten - ein Tiermodell zur Untersuchung der geschlechtsspezifischen Unterschiede bei der Schizophrenie. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 60:8–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goldberg TE, Gold JM, Torrey EF, Weinberger DR (1995) Lack of sex differences in the neuropsychological performance of patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 152:883–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Goldstein JM, Lewine RRJ (2000) Overview of sex differences in schizophrenia: where have we been and where do we go from here? In: Castle DJ, McGrath J, Kulkarni J (eds) Women and Schizophrenia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 111–143Google Scholar
  30. Häfner H (1987) Epidemiology of schizophrenia. In: Häfner H, Gattaz WF, Janzarik W (eds) Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia. Springer, Berlin, pp 47–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Häfner H (1996) The epidemiology of onset and early course of schizophrenia. In: Häfner H, Wolpert EM (eds) New Research in Psychiatry. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, Seattle Toronto, pp 33–60Google Scholar
  32. Häfner H (1998) Ist es einzig die Krankheit? In: Möller H-J, Müller N (eds) Schizophrenie - Moderne Konzepte zu Diagnostik, Pathogenese und Therapie. Springer, Wien, pp 37–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Häfner H (2000a) Gender differences in schizophrenia. In: Frank E (ed) Gender and Its Effects on Psychopathology. American Psychopathological Association Series. American Psychiatric Press Inc, Washington, DC, pp 187–228Google Scholar
  34. Häfner H (2000b) Ist es alles nur die Krankheit? (Schriften der Mathematisch-natur-wissenschaftlichen Klasse der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften Nr. 7). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Häfner H (2000c) Methodische Probleme der Forschung am Verlauf der Schizophrenie. In: Maier W, Engel RR, Möller H-J (eds) Methodik von Verlaufs-und Therapiestudien in Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie. Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen, pp 5–17Google Scholar
  36. Häfner H (2002) Schizophrenia - do men and women suffer from the same disease? Revista de Psiquiatria Clinica 29:267–292Google Scholar
  37. Häfner H, an der Heiden W (1997) Epidemiology of schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry 42:139–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Häfner H, an der Heiden W (1999) The course of schizophrenia in the light of modern follow-up studies: the ABC and WHO studies. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 249 (Suppl 4):IV/14-IV/26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Häfner H, Nowotny B (1995) Epidemiology of early-onset schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 245:80–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Häfner H, Behrens S, de Vry J, Gattaz WF, Löffler W, Maurer K, Riecher-Rössler A (1991) Warum erkranken Frauen später an Schizophrenie? Nervenheilkunde 10: 154–163Google Scholar
  41. Häfner H, Riecher-Rössler A, Hambrecht M, Maurer K, Meissner S, Schmidtke A, Fätkenheuer B, Löffler W, an der Heiden W (1992) IRAOS: an instrument for the assessment of onset and early course of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Res 6:209–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Häfner H, Maurer K, Löffler W, Riecher-Rössler A (1993a) The influence of age and sex on the onset and early course of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 162:80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Häfner H, Riecher-Rössler A, an der Heiden W, Maurer K, Fätkenheuer B, Löffler W (1993b) Generating and testing a causal explanation of the gender difference in age at first onset of schizophrenia. Psychol Med 23:925–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Häfner H, Maurer K, Löffler W, Bustamante S, an der Heiden W, Riecher-Rössler A, Nowotny B (1995) Onset and early course of schizophrenia. In: Häfner H, Gattaz WF (eds) Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, vol III. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 43–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Häfner H, Hambrecht M, Löffler W, Munk-Jorgensen P, Riecher-Rössler A (1998a) Is schizophrenia a disorder of all ages? A comparison of first episodes and early course over the life-cycle. Psychol Med 28:351–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Häfner H, an der Heiden W, Löffler W, Maurer K, Hambrecht M (1998b) Beginn und Frühverlauf schizophrener Erkrankungen. In: Klosterkötter J (eds) Frühdiagnostik und Frühbehandlung psychischer Störungen. Bayer-ZNS-Symposium, Bd. XIII. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Häfner H, Löffler W, Maurer K, Riecher-Rössler A, Stein A (1999a) Instrument für die retrospektive Erfassung des Erkrankungsbeginns und -verlaufs bei Schizophrenie und anderen Psychosen. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  48. Häfner H, Maurer K, Löffler W, an der Heiden W, Stein A, Könnecke R, Hambrecht M (1999b) Onset and prodromal phase and determinants of the course. In: Gattaz WF, Häfner H (eds) Search for the causes of schizophrenia. Vol. IV Balance of the century. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, pp 35–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Häfner H, Löffler W, Maurer K, Riecher-Rössler A, Stein A (2003) IRAOS. Interview for the retrospective assessment of the onset and course of schizophrenia and other psychoses. Hogrefe&Huber, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  50. Häfner H, Löffler W, Riecher-Rössler A, Häfner-Ranabauer W (2001) Schizophrenie and Wahn im höheren and hohen Lebensalter. Nervenarzt 72:347–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hallonquist JD, Seeman MV, Lang M, Rector NA (1993) Variation in symptom severity over the menstural cycle of schizophrenics. Biol Psychiatry 33:207–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hambrecht M, Maurer K, Sartorius N, Häfner H (1992) Transnational stability of gender differences in schizophrenia? An analysis based on the WHO Study on Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 242:6–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hambrecht M, Riecher-Rössler A, Fätkenheuer B, Louza MR, Häfner H (1994) Higher morbidity risk for schizophrenia in males: fact or fiction? Compr Psychiatry 35:39–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harris MJ, Jeste DV (1988) Late-onset schizophrenia: an overview. Schizophr Bull 14:39–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hruska RE (1986) Evaluation of striatal dopamine receptors by estrogen: dose and time studies. J Neurochem 47:1908–1915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Isohanni M, Rantakallio P, Jones P, Järvelin M-R, Isohanni I, Mäkikyrö T, Moring J (1998a) The predictors of schizophrenia in the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort study. Schizophrenia Res 29:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Isohanni M, Järvelin M-R, Nieminen P, Jones P, Rantakallio P, Jokelainen J, Isohanni M (1998b) School performance as a predictor of psychiatric hospitalization in adult life. A 28-year follow-up in the northern Finland 1966 birth cohort. Psychol Med 28:967–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jablensky A (1995) Schizophrenia: the epidemiological horizon. In: Hirsch SR, Weinberger DR (eds) Schizophrenia. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 206–252Google Scholar
  59. Jablensky A, Sartorius N, Ernberg G, Anker M, Korten A, Cooper JE, Day R, Bertelsen A (1992) Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study. Psychological Medicine Monograph Suppl 20. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  60. Jenkins R, Bebbington P, Brugha T, Farrell M, Gill B, Lewis G, Meltzer H, Petticrew M (1997) The national psychiatric morbidity survey of Great Britain. Psychol Med 27:765–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jones PB, Murray RM, Rodgers B (1995) Childhood risk factors for adult schizophrenia in a general population birth cohort at age 43 years. In: Mednick SA, Hollister JM (eds) Neural Development in Schizophrenia. Plenum Press, New York, pp 151–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jung E, Krumm B, Biehl H, Maurer K, Bauer-Schubart C (1989) DAS - Mannheimer Skala zur Einschätzung sozialer Behinderung. Beltz, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  63. Kandel DB (2000) Gender differences in the epidemiology of substance dependence in the United States. In: Frank E (ed) Gender and Its Effects on Psychopathology. American Psychopathological Association, Washington, DC, pp 231–252Google Scholar
  64. Kendler KS, Walsh D (1995) Gender and schizophrenia: results of an epidemiologically based family study. Br J Psychiatry 167:184–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Eshleman S, Wittchen H-U, Kendler KS (1994) Lifetime and twelve month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:8–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Könnecke R, Häfner H, Maurer K, Löffler W, an der Heiden W (2000) Main risk factors for schizophrenia: increased familial loading and pre-and peri-natal complications antagonize the protective effect of oestrogen in women. Schizophrenia Res 44:81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kraak B, Nord-Rüdiger D (1989) Der Fragebogen zu Lebenszielen and zur Lebenszufriedenheit (FLL). Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  68. Kraepelin E (1909–1915) Psychiatrie (Vol 1–4) 8th edn. Barth, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  69. Kulkarni J, De Castella A, Downey M, Hammond J, Reidel A, Ward S, White S, Taffe J, Fitzgerald P, Burger H (2002) Clinical estrogen trials in schizophrenia. In: Häfner H, an der Heiden W, Resch F, Schröder J (eds) Risk and Protective Factors in Schizophrenia - Towards a Conceptual Model of the Disease Process. Steinkopff, Darmstadt, pp 271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lehman AF (1983a) The well-being of chronic mental patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lehman AF (1983b) The effects of psychiatric symptoms on quality of life assessments among the chronic mentally ill. Evaluation and Program Planning 6:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lewine RRJ (1988) Gender and schizophrenia. In: Nasrallah HA (ed) Handbook of Schizophrenia, Vol 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 389–397Google Scholar
  73. Lewine RRJ, Burback D, Meltzer HY (1984) Effect of diagnostic criteria on the ratio of male to female schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 141:84–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lewine R, Haden C, Caudle J, Shurett R (1997) Sex-onset effects on neuropsychological function in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bull 23:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Löffler W, Häfner H, Fätkenheuer B, Maurer K, Riecher-Rössler A, Lützhøft J, Skadhede S, Munk-Jørgensen P, Strömgren E (1994) Validation of Danish case register diagnosis for schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 90:196–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Loranger AW (1984) Sex difference in age of onset of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:157–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maccoby EE, Jacklin CN (1974) The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  78. McGlashan TH, Bardenstein KK (1990) Gender differences in affective, schizoaffective, and schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bull 16:319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McEwen BS, Biegon A, Rainbow TC, Paden C, Snyder L, DeGroff V (1981) The interaction of estrogens with intracellular receptors and with putative neurotransmitter receptors: implications for the mechanisms of activation of regulation of sexual behaviour and ovulaton. In: Fuxe K, Gustafsson JA, Wetterberg L (eds) Steroid Hormone Regulation of the Brain. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 15–29Google Scholar
  80. Mendelson WB, Gillin JC, Wyatt RJ (1977) Sexual physiology and schizophrenia. Acta Scientifica Venezolana 28:417–425Google Scholar
  81. Moldin SO (2000) Gender and schizophrenia: an overview. In: Frank E (ed) Gender and Its Effects on Psychopathology. American Psychiatric Press Inc, Washington, DC, pp 169–186Google Scholar
  82. Mueser KT, Bellack AS, Morrison RL, Wixted JT (1990a) Social competence in schizophrenia: premorbid adjustment, social skill, and domains of functioning. J Psychiatr Res 24:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mueser KT, Yarnold PR, Levinson DF, Singh H, Bellack AS, Kee K, Morrison RL, Yadalam KG (1990b) Prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia: demographic and clinical correlates. Schizophrenia Bull 16:31–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mueser KT, Yarnold PR, Bellack AS (1992) Diagnostic and demographic correlates of substance abuse in schizophrenia and major affective disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 85:48–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Opjordsmoen S (1991) Long-term clinical outcome of schizophrenia with special reference to gender differences. Acta Psychiatr Scand 83:307–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Riecher-Rössler A, Häfner H, Stumbaum M, Maurer K, Schmidt R (1994a) Can estra-diol modulate schizophrenic symptomatology? Schizophrenia Bull 20:203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Riecher-Rössler A, Häfner H, Dütsch-Strobel A, Oster M, Stumbaum M, van GülickBailer M, Löffler W (1994b) Further evidence for a specific role of estradiol in schizophrenia? Biol Psychiatry 36:492–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rosenfield S (2000) Gender and dimensions of the self: implications for internalizing and externalizing behavior. In: Frank E (ed) Gender and Its Effects on Psychopathology. American Psychopathological Association Series. American Psychiatric Press Inc, Washington, DC, pp 23–36Google Scholar
  89. Rutter M, Tizard J, Whitmore K (1970) Education, Health and Behaviour. Longmans, LondonGoogle Scholar
  90. Salokangas RKR, Stengard E, Räkköläinen V, Kaljonen IHA (1987) New schizophrenic patients and their families (English summary). In: Reports of Psychiatria Fennica, No.78. Foundation for Psychiatric Research in Finland, pp 119–216Google Scholar
  91. Seeman MV (1981) Gender and the onset of schizophrenia: neuro-humoral influences. Psychiatr J Univ Ottawa 6:136–138Google Scholar
  92. Seeman MV (1982) Gender differences in schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry 27:107–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Seeman MV (1996) The role of estrogen in schizophrenia. J Psychiatry Neurosci 21:123–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Shepherd M, Oppenheim B, Mitchell S (1971) Childhood Behaviour and Mental Health. University of London Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  95. Shughrue PJ, Lane MV, Merchenthaler I (1997) Comparative distribution of estrogen receptor and X and B MRNA in the rat central nervous system. J Compr Neurol 388:507–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Soyka M (1994) Sucht und Schizophrenie. Nosologische, klinische und therapeutische Fragen. 1. Alkoholismus und Schizophrenie. Fortschr Neurologische Psychiatrie 62:71–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sumner BEH, Fink G (1995) Oestradiol-17β in its positive feedback mode significantly increases 5-HT2a receptor density in the frontal, cingulate and piriform cortex of the female rat. J Physiology 483:52Google Scholar
  98. Sumner BEH, Grant KE, Rosie R, Hegele-Hartung C, Fritzemeier K-H, Fink G (1999) Effects of tamoxifen on serotonin transporter and 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding sites and mRNA levels in the brain of ovariectomized rats with or without acute estradiol replacement. Mol Brain Res 73:119–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Van Os J, Howard R, Takei N, Murray R (1995) Increasing age is a risk factor for psychosis in the elderly. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 30:161–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Walker EF, Weinstein J, Baum K, Neumann CS (1995) Antecedents of schizophrenia: moderating effects of development and biological sex. In: Häfner H, Gattaz WF (eds) Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, Vol III. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weber I (1996) Lebenszufriedenheit einer Kohorte Schizophrener 15,5 Jahre nach stationärer Aufnahme. Doctoral thesis for a Doctor scientiarum humanarum of the Mannheim Faculty of Clinical Medicine of the Ruprecht Karls University of HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  102. Weiser M, Reichenberg A, Rabinowitz J, Kaplan Z, Mark M, Nahon D, Davidson M (2000) Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Res 45:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. WHO-World Health Organization (1988) Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO/DAS). WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  104. Wing JK, Cooper JE, Sartorius N (1974) Measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms: An instruction manual for the PSE and CATEGO program. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  105. Woolley CS, McEwen BS (1994) Estradiol regulates hippocampal dendritic spine density via an N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent mechanism. J Neurosci 14:7680–7687PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinz Häfner
    • 1
  1. 1.From Schizophrenia Research UnitCentral Institute of Mental HealthMannheimGermany

Personalised recommendations