Advertisement

Anomalous coronary arteries

  • Antonio F. Corno

Abstract

Congenital coronary artery anomalies have been estimated to occur in 0.2 to 1.2% of the general population. Since these data are coming from large series of angiographic studies, the incidence is most probably underestimated, since many people never undergo angiography. Among the different types of anomalous coronary artery, the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is the most common, with an incidence of 0.25–0.50% in congenital heart defects, a little more frequent than coronary artery fistula, found with an incidence of 0.20–0.40% of congenital heart defects.

Keywords

Coronary Artery Pulmonary Artery Left Coronary Artery Left Main Coronary Artery Anomalous Origin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahmed SS, Haider, Regan TJ (1982) Silent left coronary-cameral fistula: probable cause of myocardial ischemia. Am Heart J 104:869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander R, Griffith G (1956) Anomalies of the coronary arteries and their clinical significance. Circulation 14:800–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexi-Meskishvili V, Hetzer R (2001) Surgical intervention for anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 122:635–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alpaslan M, Onrat E (2002) Anomalous origin of right coronary artery above the sinus of Valsalva: observation by transthoracic echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15:264–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Altun A, Erdogan AO (2003) Stent implantation to the stenosed right coronary artery in a patient whose right and left coronary arteries originate from a single ostium in the right sinus of Valsalva. Cardiol Rev 11:101–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amanullah MM, Hamilton JR, Hasan A (2001) Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: creating an autogenous arterial conduit for aortic implantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 20:853–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Amin Z, McElhinney DB, Reddy VM, Moore P, Hanley FL, Teitel DF (2000) Coronary to pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect. Ann Thorac Surg 70:119–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson KR, McGoon DC, Lie JT (1978) Surgical significance of the coronary arterial anatomy in truncus arteriosus communis. Am J Cardiol 41:76–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ando M, Mee RB, Duncan BW, Drummond-Webb JJ, Seshadri SG, Igor Mesia CL (2002) Creation of a dual-coronary system for anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery utilizing the trapdoor flap method. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 22:576–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Angelini P (1989) Normal and anomalous coronary arteries: definition and classification. Am Heart J 117:418–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Apley J, Horton RE, Wilson MG (1957) The possible role of surgery in the treatment of anomalous left coronary artery. Thorax 12:23Google Scholar
  12. Arciniegas E, Farooki ZQ, Hakimi M, Green EW (1980) Management of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Circulation 62(Suppl. I):180Google Scholar
  13. Augustasson MN, Gasul BM, Lundquist R (1962) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (adult type). Pediatrics 29:274Google Scholar
  14. Azakie A, Russell JL, McCrindle BW, van Arsdell GS, Benson LN, Coles JG, Williams WG (2003) Anatomic repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery by aortic reimplantation: early survival, patterns of ventricular recovery and late outcome. Ann Thorac Surg 75:1535–1541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Backer CL, Stout MJ, Zales VR, Muster AJ, Weigel TJ, Idriss FS, Mavroudis C (1992) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery. A twenty-year review of surgical management. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 103:1049–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Backer CL, Hillman N, Dodge-Khatami A, Mavroudis C (2000) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: successful surgical strategies without assist devices. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Ann 3:165Google Scholar
  17. Baim DS, Kline H, Silverman JF (1982) Bilateral coronary artery-pulmonary artery fistulas: report of five cases and review of the literature. Circulation 65:810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barth CW, Roberts WC (1986) Left main coronary artery originating from the right sinus of Valsalva and coursing between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. J Am Coll Cardiol 7:366–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Barth MJ, Allen BS, Gulecyuz M, Chiemmongkoltip P, Cuneo B, Ilbawi MN (2003) Experience with an alternative technique for the management of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Ann Thorac Surg 76:1429–1434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Basso C, Maron BJ, Corrado D, Thiene G (2000) Clinical profile of congenital coronary artery anomalies with origin from the wrong aortic sinus leading to sudden death in young competitive athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol 35:1493–1501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Barton CW, Snider RS, Rosenthal A (1986) Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic features of left circumflex coronary artery to right ventricle fistula: a case report and literature review. Pediatr Cardiol 7:167–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bauer HH, Allmendinger PD, Flaherty J, Owlia D, Rossi MA, Chen C (1996) Congenital coronary arteriovenous fistula: spontaneous rupture and cardiac tamponade. Ann Thorac Surg 62:1521–1523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Benge W, Martins JB, Funk DC (1980) Morbidity associated with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. Am Heart J 99:96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bett JHN, O’Brien MF, Murray PJS (1985) Surgery for anomalous origin of the right coronary artery. Br Heart J 53:459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bland EF, White PD, Garland J (1933) Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries: report of an unusual case associated with cardiac hypertrophy. Am Heart J 8:787–793Google Scholar
  26. Bogers AJJC, Quaegebeur JM, Huysmans HA (1987) Early and late results of surgical treatment of congenital coronary artery fistula. Thorax 42:369–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bogers AJJC, Gittenberger-deGroot AC 1992) The ALCAPA, what’ s in a name? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 104:527Google Scholar
  28. Bojar RM, Ilbawi MN, de Leon SY, Riggs TW, Idriss FS (1984) Surgical management of anomalous left coronary artery with mitral insufficiency in infancy: contribution of echocardiography. Pediatr Cardiol 5:35–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bolt I, Spalinger J, Pfammatter JP (2003) Cardiac features in the presymptomatic period in a neonate with anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary trunk. Cardiol Young 13:579–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bonnet D, Bonhoeffer P, Aggoun Y, Acar P, Sidi D, Vouhé PR, Kachaner J (1998) Aortocoronary bypass in children. Arch Mal Cur Vaiss 91:581–585Google Scholar
  31. Bonnet D, Bonhoeffer P, Sidi D, Kachaner J, Acar P, Villain E, Vouhé PR (1999) Surgical angioplasty of the main coronary arteries in children. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 117:352–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brandt B, Martins JB, Marcus ML (1983) Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. N Engl J Med 309:596–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Brooks SJ (1996) Two cases of an abnormal coronary artery of the heart arising from the pulmonary artery: with some remarks upon the effect of this anomaly in producing cirsoid dilatation of the vessels. J Anat Physiol 20:26Google Scholar
  34. Bucsenez D, Messmer BJ, Gillor A, von Bernuth G (1994) Management of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 107:1370–1373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bunce NH, Lorenz CH, Keegan J, Lesser J, Reyes EM, Firmin DN, Pennell DJ (2003) Coronary artery anomalies: assessment with free-breathing threedimensional coronary MR angiography. Radiology 227:201–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bunton R, Jonas RA, Lang P, Rein AJJT, Castaneda AR (1987) Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery: ligation versus establishment of a two coronary artery system. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 93:103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Byrum CJ, Blackman MS, Schneider B, Sondheimer HM, Kavey RW (1980) Congenital atresia of the left coronary ostium and hypoplasia of the left main coronary artery. Am Heart J 99:354–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cademartiri F, Nieman K, Raaymakers RH, de Feyter PJ, Flohr T, Alfieri O, Krestin GP (2003) Noninvasive demonstration of coronary artery anomaly performed using 16-slice multidetector spiral computed tomography. Ital Heart J 4:56–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Carrel T, Tkebuchava T, Jenni R, Arbenz U, Turina M (1996) Congenital coronary fistulas in children and adults: diagnosis, surgical technique and results. Cardiology 87:325–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Carvalho JS, Redington AN, Oldershaw PJ, Shinebourne EA, Lincoln CR, Gibson DG (1991) Analysis of left ventricular wall movement before and after reimplantation of anomalous left coronary artery in infancy. Br Heart J 65:218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chaitman BR, Lesperance J, Saltiel J, Bourassa MG (1976) Clinical, angiographic and hemodynamic findings in patients with anomalous origin of the coronary arteries. Circulation 53:122–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cheitlin MD, DeCastro CM, McAllister HA (1977) Sudden death as a complication of anomalous left coronary origin from the anterior sinus of Valsalva. A not-so-minor congenital anomaly. Circulation 50:780–787Google Scholar
  43. Cheng TO (2002) Anomalous pulmonary origin of the left coronary artery. Circulation 105:63Google Scholar
  44. Chiariello L, Meyer J, Reul G, Hallman GL, Cooley DA (1975) Surgical treatment for anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery. Ann Thorac Surg 19:443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Christiansen S, Aranda-Carrero M, Brose S, Demircan L, Autschbach R (2003) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery: surgical therapy using a miniaturized heart-lung machine. Herz 28:262264Google Scholar
  46. Chung KJ, Brandt L, Fulton DR, Kreidberg MB (1982) Cardiac and coronary arterial involvement in infants and children from New Englan with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease). Am J Cardiol 50:136–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Click RL, Holmes DR, Vlietstra RE, Kosinski AS, Kronmal RA (1989) Anomalous coronary arteries: location, degree of atherosclerosis and effect on survival: a report from the Coronary Artery Surgery Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 13:531–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cochrane AD, Coleman DM, Davis AM, Brizard CP, Wolfe R, Karl TR (1999) Excellent long-term functional outcome after an operation for anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 117:332–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cohen AJ, Grishkin BA, Helsel RA, Head HD (1989) Surgical therapy in the management of coronary anomalies: emphasis on utility of internal mammary artery grafts. Ann Thorac Surg 47:630–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Cooley DA, Ellis PR (1962) Surgical considerations of coronary arterial fistula. Am J Cardiol 10:467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cooley DA, Hallman GL, Bloodwell RD (1966) Definitive surgical treatment of anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: indications and results. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 52:798–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Corno AF, Latini L, Giannico S, Marino B, Parisi F, Marcelletti C (1988) Trattamento chirurgico delle anomalie coronariche isolate o associate a cardiopatie congenite. Cardiol 33(Suppl II): 19Google Scholar
  53. Corno AF, Pierli C, Biagioli B, Lisi G, Grossi A (1988) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from an aortopulmonary window. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 96:669–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Corno AF (2000) Surgery for congenital heart disease. Curr Opinion Cardiol 15:238–243Google Scholar
  55. Corrado D, Thiene G, Cocco P, Frescura C (1992) Non-atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and sudden death in the young. Br Heart J 68:601607Google Scholar
  56. Daliento L, Gasoli G, Mazzucco A (1993) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the anterior aortic sinus: role of echocardiographic screening. Int J Cardiol 38:89–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. De Caro E, Pongiglione G (2001) Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the left internal thoracic artery graft: a case report of a child operated on for anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Pediatric Cardiol 22:423–425Google Scholar
  58. De Nef JJE, Varghese PJ, Losekoot TG (1971) Congenital coronary artery fistula: analysis of 17 cases. Br Heart J 33:857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Del Nido P, Duncan BW, Mayer JE, Wessel DL, La-Pierre RA, Jonas RA (1999) Left ventricular assist device improves survival in children with left ventricular dysfunction after repair of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Ann Thorac Surg 67:169–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. DiLello F, Mnuk JF, Flemma RJ, Mullen DC (1991) Successful coronary reimplantation for anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 102:455–456Google Scholar
  61. Dobell ARC, Long RW (1981) Right coronary-left ventricular fistula mimicking aortic valve insufficiency in infancy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 82:785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dodge-Khatami A, Mavroudis C, Backer CL (2002) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: collective review of surgical therapy. Ann Thorac Surg 74:946–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Donaldson RM, Raphael MJ, Yacoub MH, Ross DN (1982) Hemodynamically significant anomalies of the coronary arteries: surgical aspects. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 30:7–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Doorey AJ (2002) Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left coronary sinus. Tex Heart Inst J 29:232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Edwards JE (1964) The direction of blood flow in coronary arteries arising from the pulmonary trunk. Circulation 29:163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. El-Oakley R, Al-Saeedi A, Al-Faraidi Y, Abou-Zanouna Y, Abdull Hamid J, Jubair K (1999) Reimplantation of anomalous left coronary artery on a beating heart. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 117:395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Endo M, Nishida H, Tomizawa Y, Koyanagi H, Hickata T (2001) Off-pump reimplantation of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery. Jpn Circ J 65:471–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Engel HJ, Torres C, Page HL (1975) Major variations in anatomical origin of the coronary arteries: angiographic observations in 4250 patients without associated congenital heart disease. Cathet Cardiovasc Diag 1:157–169Google Scholar
  69. Erdol C, Celik S, Baykan M, Orem C, Kaplan S (2001) Patent ductus arteriosus associated with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery: a case report. Int J Cardiol 81:99–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Farooki ZQ, Nowlen T, Hakimi M, Pinsky WW (1993) Congenital coronary artery fistulae: a review of 18 cases with emphasis on spontaneous closure. Pediatr Cardiol 14:208–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Feldt RH, Ongley PA, Titus JL (1965) Total coronary arterial circulation from pulmonary artery with survival to age seven: report of a case. Mayo Clin Proc 40:539–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fernandes ED, Kadivar H, Hallman GL, Reul GJ, Orr DA, Cooley DA (1992) Congenital malformations of the coronary arteries: the Texas Heart Institute experience. Ann Thorac Surg 54:732–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Finley JP, Holman-Giles R, Gilday DL, Olley PM, Rowe RD (1978) Thallium-201 myocardial imaging in anomalous left coronary arising from the pulmonary artery: application before and after medical and surgical treatment. Am J Cardiol 41:675–680Google Scholar
  74. Fisher EA, Sepehri B, Lendrum B, Luken J, Levitsky S (1981) Two-dimensional echocardiographic visualization of the left coronary in anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery: pre and postoperative studies. Circulation 63:698–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fortune RL, Baron PJ, Fitzgerald JW (1987) Atresia of the left main coronary artery: repair with left internal mammary artery bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 94:150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Frescura C, Basso C, Thiene G (1998) Anomalous origin of coronary arteries and risk of sudden death: a study based on an autopsy population of congenital heart disease. Hum Pathol 29:689–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Frommelt MA, Miller ME, Williamson JF, Bergstrom S (2002) Detection of septal coronary collaterals by color flow Doppler mapping is a marker for anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15: 259–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Frommelt PC, Frommelt MA, Tweddell JS, Jaquiss RDB (2003) Prospective echocardiographic diagnosis and surgical repair of anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the opposite sinus with an interarterial course. J Am Coll Cardiol 42:148–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Garabedian CP, Mosca RS, Hellenbrand WE (2002) Coronary artery fistula embolization in an infant with pulmonary atresia intact ventricular septum: a case report. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 57:371373Google Scholar
  80. Gay F, Vouhé P, Lecompte Y, Guarnera S, Tamisier D, Kachaner J, Neveux JY (1989) Atresia of the left coronary ostium: repair in two-month-old infant. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 82:807–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. George JM, Knowlan DM (1959) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in an adult. N Engl J Med 261:993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gerber TC, Kuzo RS, Safford RE (2002) Computed tomographic imaging of anomalous coronary arteries. Circulation 106:67Google Scholar
  83. Gerlis LM, Magee AG, Sheppard MN (2002) Congenital atresia of the orifice of the left coronary artery. Cardiol Young 12:57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ghosh PK, Friedman M, Vidne BA (1993) Isolated congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery and atherosclerosis. Ann Thorac Surg 55:1564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Giardini A, Gargiulo G, Picchio FM (2001) Surgical repair of naturally palliated anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right pulmonary artery. Cardiol Young 11:568–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gillebert C, van Hoof R, van de Werf F, Piessen J, de Geest H (1986) Coronary artery fistulas in the adult population. Eur Heart J 7:437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Giroud SK, Cartier R (2002) Atypical presentation of an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery with severe compression between the great vessels. Ann Thorac Surg 73:1636–1638Google Scholar
  88. Grace RR, Angelini P, Cooley DA (1977) Aortic implantation of anomalous left coronary artery arising from pulmonary artery. Am J Cardiol 39:609–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Guikahue MK, Sidi D, Kachaner J, Villain E, Cohen L, Piechaud JF, le Bidois J, Pedroni E, Vouhé P, Neveux JY (1988) Anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery in infancy: is early operation better? Br Heart J 60:522Google Scholar
  90. Hanzlick R, Stivers RR (1983) Sudden death in a marathon runner with origin of the right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. Am J Cardiol 51:1467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hariharan R, Kacere RD, Angelini P (2002) Can stent-angioplasty be a valid alternative to surgery when revascularization is indicated for anomalous origination of a coronary artery from the opposite sinus? Tex Heart Inst J 29:308–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hayashi Y, Kishida K, Haneda N, Mori C (1990) A case of Bland-White-Garland syndrome with myocardial infaction on the first day after birth. Pediatr Cardiol 11:175–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hejmadi A, Sahn DJ (2003) What is the most effective method of detecting anomalous coronary origin in symptomatic patients? J Am Coll Cardiol 42:155–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hermann MA, Dousa MK, Edwards WD (1992) Sudden infant death with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 13:191–195Google Scholar
  95. Hiraishi S, Misawa H, Horiguchi Y, Fujino N, Takeda N, Nakea S, Kasahara S (1998) Effect of suture closure of coronary fistula on aneurysmal coronary artery and myocardial ischemia. Am J Cardiol 81:1263–1267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Horiuchi T, Abe T, Tanake S, Koyamada K (1971) Congenital coronary arteriovenous fistulas. Ann Thorac Surg 11:102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Houston AB, Pollock JC, Doig WB (1990) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: diagnostic elucidation with colour Doppler flow mapping. Br Heart J 63:50–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hruda J, Hazekamp MG, Sobotka-Plojhar MA, Ottenkamp J (2002) Repair of aorto-right ventricular tunnel with pulmonary stenosis and an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 21:1123–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Isomatsu Y, Imai Y, Seo K, Terada M, Aoki M, Shin’oka T (2000) Definitive improvement in left ventricular function at six years after the Takeuchi procedure. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 48:733–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Iyisoy A, Kursaklioglu H, Barcin C, Barindik N, Kose S, Demirtas E (2002) Single coronary artery with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery as a branch from the left anterior descending artery: a very rare coronary anomaly. Heart Vessels 16:161–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Jalal A, Shackcloth M, Dihmis WC (2002) Anomalous course of the right coronary artery in the right atrial wall: a word of caution. Heart Surg Forum 5:300–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Jokl E, McClellan JT, Ross GD (1962) Congenital anomaly of left coronary artery in young athlete. JAMA 182:572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Joseph T, Raccuglia S, Kort S, Oviasu F, Mangion JR (2002) Anomalous right coronary artery from the main pulmonary artery in patient with doublechambered right ventricle. Echocardiography 19: 687–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kamiya H, Yasuda T, Nagamine H, Sakakibara N, Nishida S, Kawasuji M, Watanabe G (2002) Surgical treatment of congenital coronary artery fistulas: 27 years experience and a review of the literature. J Card Surg 17:173–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kaneko Y, Okabe H, Nagata N, Kobayashi J, Murakami A, Takamoto S (2001) Pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and coronary-pulmonary artery fistula. Ann Thorac Surg 71:355–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Katsumata T, Westaby S (1999) Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: a simple method for implantation with autogenous arterial tissue. Ann Thorac Surg 68:1090–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Keeton BR, Keenan DJM, Monro JL (1983) Anomalous origin of both coronary arteries from the pulmonary trunk. Br Heart J 49:397–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Keith JD (1959) The anomalous origin of the left coronary from the pulmonary artery. Br Heart J 21:149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kesler KA, Pennington DG, Nouri S, Boegner E, Kanter KR, Harvey L, Chen SC, Juriedini S, Balfour I, Willman VL (1989) Left subclavian-left coronary artery anastomosis for anomalous origin of the left coronary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 98:25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kim HS, McBride RA, Titus JL (1988) Quadricuspid aortic valve and single coronary ostium. Arch Pathol Lab Med 112:842–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kim WY, Danias PG, Stuber M (2001) Coronary magnetic resonance angiography for the detection of coronary stenoses. N Engl J Med 345: 1863–1869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kimbiris D (1985) Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva. Am J Cardiol 55:765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Koike K, Freedom RM (1989) Kawasaki disease, with a focus on cardiovascular manifestations. Curr Opinion Pediatr 1:135–141Google Scholar
  114. Kragel AH, Roberts WC (1988) Anomalous origin of either the right or left main coronary artery from the aorta with subsequent coursing between aorta and pulmonary trunk: analysis of 32 necropsy cases. Am J Cardiol 62:771–777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Krishnamoorthy KM, Rao S (2003) Saccular aneurysm of congenital coronary arteriovenous fistula. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2:295–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Laks H, Ardehali A, Grant P, Allada V (1995) Aortic implantations of anomalous left coronary artery: an improved surgical approach. J Thorac Cardiovas Surg 109:519–523Google Scholar
  117. Lambert V, Touchot A, Losay J, Piot JD, Henglein D, Serraf A, Lacour-Gayet F, Planche C (1996) Midterm results after surgical repair of the anomalous origin of coronary artery. Circulation 94(Suppl. II):38–43Google Scholar
  118. Lanzillo G, Breccia PA, Intonti F (1981) Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve with displacement of the right coronary orifice. Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 15:149–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Latson LA, Forbes TJ, Cheatham JP (1992) Transcatheter coil embolization of a fistula from the posterior descending coronary artery to the right ventricle in a two-year-old child. Am Heart J 124:1624–1626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. La Vecchia L, Favero L, Fontaneiii A (2002) Anomalous origin of left anterior descending and circumflex coronary artery from two separate ostia in the right aortic sinus. Heart 88:322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Lee J, Choe YH, Kim HJ, Park JE (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging demonstration of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left coronary sinus associated with acute myocardial infarction. J Comput Assist Tomogr 27:289–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Lerberg DB, Ogden JA, Zuberbuhler JR, Bahnson HT (1979) Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Ann Thorac Surg 27:87–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Levin DC, Fellows KE, Abrams HL (1978) Hemodynamically significant primary anomalies of the coronary arteries. Circulation 58:25–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Levitsky S, van der Horst RL, Hastreiter AR, Fisher EA (1980) Anomalous left coronary artery in the infant: recovery of ventricular function following early direct aortic implantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 79:598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Li W, Ferrett C, Henein M (2003) Images in cardiovascular medicine. Anomalous coronary arteries by electron beam angiography. Circulation 107:2630Google Scholar
  126. Liberthson RR, Dinsmore RE, Fallon JT (1979) Aberrant coronary artery origin from the aorta: report of 18 patients, review of literature and delineation of natural history and management. Circulation 59:748–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Liberthson RR, Sagar K, Berkoben JP, Weintraub RM, Levine FH (1979) Congenital coronary arteriovenous fistula: report of 13 patients, review of the literature and delineation of management. Circulation 59:849–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Liberthson RR (1996) Sudden death from cardiac causes in children and young adults. N Engl J Med 334:1039–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lipsett J, Byard RW, Carpenter BF, Jimenez CL, Bourne AJ (1991) Anomalous coronary arteries arising from the aorta associated with sudden death in infancy and early childhood. Arch Pathol Lab Med 115:770–773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Lipton MJ, Barry WH, Obrez I, Silverman JF, Wexler L (1979) Isolated single coronary artery: diagnosis, angiographic classification, and clinical significance. Radiology 130:39–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lowe JE, Oldham HN, Sabiston DC (1981) Surgical management of congenital coronary artery fistulas. Ann Surg 194:373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Manning WJ, Li W, Edelman RR (1993) A preliminary report comparing magnetic resonance coronary angiography with conventional angiography. N Engl J Med 328:828–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Massih TA, Clur SA, Bonhoeffer P (2002) Exertional pulmonary edema revealing anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right coronary aortic sinus. Cardiol Young 12:78–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Mavroudis C, Harrison H, Klein JB, Gray LA, Ganzel BL, Wellhausen SR, Eibl F, Cook LN (1988) Infant orthotopic cardiac transplantation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 96:912–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Mavroudis C, Backer CL, Muster AJ, Pahl E, Sanders JH, Zales VR, Gevitz M (1996) Expanding indications for pediatric coronary artery bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 111:181–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Mavroudis C, Backer CL, Rocchini AP, Muster AJ, Gevitz M (1997) Coronary artery fistulas in infants and children: a surgical review and discussion of coil embolization. Ann Thorac Surg 63:1235–1242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Menahem S, Venables AW (1987) Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: a 15 years sample. Br Heart J 58:378–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Meyer BW, Stefanik G, Stiles QR (1968) A method of definitive surgical treatment of anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 56:104–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Michielon G, di Carlo D, Brancaccio G, Guccione P, Mazzera E, Toscano A, di Donato RM (2003) Anomalous coronary artery origin from the pulmonary artery: correlation between surgical timing and left ventricular function recovery. Ann Thorac Surg 76:581–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Mirkhani SH, Delavarkhan M, Bayat H, Sanatkar M (2002) Anomalous connection of left circumflex artery to pulmonary artery. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 10:334–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Misawa Y, Saito T, Oki S, Fuse K (2002) Management of anomalous right coronary arteries encountered during aortic valve surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 21:102–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Miyazaki A, Tsuda E, Miyazaki S, Kitamura S, Tomita H, Echigo S (2003) Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for anastomotic stenosis after coronary arterial bypass grafting in Kawasaki disease. Cardiol Young 13:284–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Moodie DS, Gill C, Loop FD, Sheldon WC (1980) Anomalous left main coronary artery originating from the right sinus of Valsalva: pathophysiology, angiographic definition, and surgical approaches. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 80:198–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Mullins CE, El-Said G, McNamara DG, Cooley DA, Treistman B, Garcia E (1972) Atresia of the left coronary artery ostium: repair by saphenous vein graft. Circulation 46:899–903Google Scholar
  145. Murthy KS, Krishanaik S, Mohantly SR, Varghese R, Cherian KM (2001)A new repair for anomalous left coronary artery. Ann Thorac Surg 71:1384–1386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Musiani A, Cernigliaro C, Sansa M, Maselli D, De Gasperi C (1997) Left main coronary artery atresia: literature review and therapeutical considerations. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 11:505–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Mustafa I, Gula G, Radley-Smith R, Durrer S, Yacoub MH (1981) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the anterior aortic sinus: a potential cause of sudden death. Anatomic characterization and surgical treatment. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 82:297–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Nair KK, Zisman LS, Lader E, Dimova A, Canver CC (2003) Heart transplant for anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery. Ann Thorac Surg 75:282–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Neches WH, Mathews RA, Park SC, Lenox CC, Zuberbuhler JR, Siewers RD, Bahnson HT (1974) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: a new method of surgical repair. Circulation 50:582–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Neirotti R, Nijveld A, Ithuralde M, Quaglio M, Seara C, Lubbers L, Schuller J, Mollen R (1991) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: repair by aortic reimplantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 5:368–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Nelson-Piercy C, Rickards AF, Yacoub MH (1990) Aberrant origin of the right coronary artery as a potential cause of sudden death: successful anatomical correction. Br Heart J 64:208–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Ogden JA (1970) Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries. Am J Cardiol 25:474–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Ortiz E, de Leval MR, Somerville J (1986) Ductus arteriosus associated with an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery: catastrophe after duct ligation. Br Heart J 55:415–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Pandey R, Ciotti G, Pozzi M (2002) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: results of surgical correction in five infants. Ann Thorac Surg 74:1625–1630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Papa M, Nava S, Corno AF, Pasquini L, Carotti A, Ragonese P, Marcelletti C (1990) Anomalie coronariche isolate come causa di ischemia miocardica in et? pediatrica. Clin Ter Cardiovasc 9:257261Google Scholar
  156. Pasquini L, Sanders SP, Parness IA, Colan SD (1987) Diagnosis of coronary artery anatomy by two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with transposition of the great arteries. Circulation 61:84–95Google Scholar
  157. Pasquini L, Parness IA, Colan SD, Wernovsky G, Mayer JE, Sanders SP (1993) Diagnosis of intramural coronary artery in transposition of the great arteries using two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 88:1136–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Perry SB, Rome J, Keane JF, Bairn DS, Lock JE (1992) Transcatheter closure of coronary artery fistulas. J Am Coll Cardiol 20:205–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Piechaud JF, Shalaby L, Kachaner J, Villain E, Sidi D (1987) Pulmonary artery “stop-flow” angiography to visualize the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in infants. Pediatr Cardiol 8:11–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Post JC, van Rossum AC, Bronzwaer JG, de Cock CC, Hofman MB, Valk J, Visser CA (1995) Magnetic resonance angiography of anomalous coronary arteries: a new gold standard for delineating the proximal course? Circulation 92:3163–3171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Raanani E, Abramov D, Abramov Y, Birk E, Vidne BA (1995) Individual anatomy demands various techniques in correction of an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery in the pulmonary artery. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 43:99–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Rapp AH, Hillis LD (2001) Clinical consequences of anomalous coronary arteries. Coron Artery Dis 12:617–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Reidy JF, Anjos RT, Qureshi SA, Baker EJ, Tynan MJ (1991) Transcatheter embolization in the treatment of coronary artery fistulas. J Am Coll Cardiol 18:187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Rein AJJ, Colan SD, Parness IA, Sanders SP (1987) Regional and global left ventricular function in infants with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk: preoperative and postoperative assessment. Circulation 75:115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Reul RM, Cooley DA, Hallman GL, Reul GJ (2002) Surgical treatment of coronary artery anomalies: report of a 37 1/2-year experience at the Texas Heart Institute. Tex Heart Inst J 29:299–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Rigatelli G, Rigatelli G (2003) Coronary artery anomalies: what we know and what we have to learn: a proposed clinical classification. Ital Heart J 4:305–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Roberts WC (1986) Major anomalies of coronary arterial origin seen in adulthood. Am Heart J 111:941963Google Scholar
  168. Rodefeld MD, Culbertson CB, Rosenfeld HM, Hanley FL, Thompson LD (2001) Pulmonary artery translocation: a surgical option for complex anomalous coronary artery anatomy. Ann Thorac Surg 72:2150–2152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Romp RL, Herlong JR, Landolfo CK, Sanders SP, Miller CE, Ungerleider RM, Jaggers J (2003) Outcome of unroofing procedure for repair of anomalous aortic origin of left or right coronary artery. Ann Thorac Surg 76:589–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Ropers D, Gehling G, Pohle K, Maeffert R, Regenfus M, Moshage W, Schuster P, Daniel WG, Achenbach S (2002) Images in cardiovascular medicine. Anomalous course of the main or left anterior descending coronary artery originating from the right sinus of Valsalva: identification of four common variations by electron beam tomography. Circulation 106:67Google Scholar
  171. Rose AG (1978) Multiple coronary arterioventricular fistulae. Circulation 58:178–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Rosenkranz ER, Murphy DJ, Cosgrove DM (1992) Surgical management of left coronary artery ostial atresia and supravalvular aortic stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 54:779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Rotzsch C, Kabus M, Hausler HJ (2002) Images in cardiology. A rare congenital coronary anomaly: anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Heart 88:141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Rudoplh AM, Gootman NL, Kaplan N, Rohman M (1963) Anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery with large left-toright shunt in infancy. J Pediatr 63:543Google Scholar
  175. Sabiston DC, Neill CA, Taussig HB (1960) The direction of blood flow in anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery. Circulation 22:591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Sacks JH, Londe SP, Rosenbluth A, Zalis EG (1977) Left main coronary bypass for aberrant (aortic) intramural left coronary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 73:733–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Sadiq M, Wilkinson JL, Qureshi SA (2001) Successful occlusion of a coronary arteriovenous fistula using an Amplatzer duct occluder. Cardiol Young 11:84–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Sahn DJ, Vick GW (2001) Review of new techniques in echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging as applied to patients with congenital heart disease. Heart 86(Suppl. II):41–53Google Scholar
  179. Said SA, el Gamal MI, van der Werf T (1997) Coronary arteriovenous fistulas: collective review and management of cases: changing etiology, presentation, and treatment strategy. Clin Cardiol 20:748–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Sarris GE, Drummond-Webb JJ, Ebeid MR, Latson LA, Mee RB (1997) Anomalous origin of left coronary from right pulmonary artery in hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 64:836–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Schwartz ML, Jonas RA, Colan SD (1997) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: recovery of left ventricular function after dual coronary repair. J Am Coll Cardiol 30:547–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Schumacher G, Roithmaier A, Lorenz HP, Meisner H, Sauer U, Muller KD, Sebening F, Buhlmeyer K (1997) Congenital coronary artery fistula in infancy and childhood: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 45:287–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Seabra-Gomes R, Somerville J, Ross DN, Emanuel R, Parker DJ, Wong M (1974) Congenital coronary artery aneurysm. Br Heart J 36:329–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Selzman CH, Zimmerman MA, Campbell DN (2003) ALCAPA in an adult with preserved left ventricular function. J Card Surg 18:25–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Shinkawa T, Yamaguchi M, Yoshimura N, Oka S (2002) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: a case using the autologous pulmonary arterial wall graft. Eur Cardiothorac Surg 21:105–107Google Scholar
  186. Singh TP, Di Carli MF, Sullivan NM, Leonen MF, Morrow WR (1998) Myocardial flow reserve in long-term survivors of repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery J Am Coll Cardiol 31:437–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Smith A, Arnold R, Anderson RH, Wilkinson JL, Qureshi SA, Gerlis LM, McKay R (1989) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk: anatomic findings in relation to pathophysiology and surgical repair. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 98:16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Sreeram N, Hunter S, Wren C (1989) Acute myocardial infarction in infancy: unmasking of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery by ligation of an arterial duct. Br Heart J 61:307–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Steiberger J, Lucas RV, Edwards JE, Titus JL (1996) Causes of sudden unexplained cardiac death in the first two decades of life. Am J Cardiol 77: 992–995Google Scholar
  190. Stern H, Sauer U, Locher D, Bauer R, Meisner H, Sebening F, Buhlmeyer K (1993) Left ventricular function assessed with echocardiography and myocardial perfusion assessed with scintigraphy under dipyridamole stress in pediatric patients after repair for anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 106:723–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Takeuchi S, Imamura H, Katsumoto J, Hayashi I, Katohgi T, Yozu R, Ohkura M, Inoue T (1979) New surgical method for repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 78:7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Taylor AJ, Rogan KM, Virmani R (1992) Sudden cardiac death associated with isolated congenital coronary artery anomalies. J Am Coll Cardiol 20:640–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Tashiro T, Todo K, Haruta Y, Yasunaga H, Nagata M, Nakamura M (1993) Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: new operative technique. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 106:718–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Thomas S, Salloum J, Montalescot G (1991) Anomalous coronary arteries coursing between the aorta and pulmonary trunk: clinical indications for coronary artery bypass. Eur Heart J 12:832–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Tkebuchava T, von Segesser LK, Vogt PR, Jenni R, Arbenz U, Turina M (1996) Congenital coronary fistulas in children and adults: diagnosis, surgical technique and results. J Cardiovasc Surg 37:29–34Google Scholar
  196. Turley R, Szarnicki R, Flachbart K, Richter R, Popper R, Tarnoff H (1995) Aortic implantation is possible in all cases of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Ann Thorac Surg 60:84–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Tutarel O (2004) Quadricuspid aortic valves and anomalies of the coronary arteries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127:897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Ueyama K, Ramchandani M, Beall AC, Jones JW (1997) Diagnosis and operation for anomalous circumflex coronary artery. Ann Thorac Surg 63:377381Google Scholar
  199. Urrutia SCO, Falaschi G, Ott DA, Cooley DA (1983) Surgical management of 56 patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas. Ann Thorac Surg 35:300–307Google Scholar
  200. Van Son JAM, Haas GS (1996) Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from right sinus of Valsalva: modified surgical treatment to avoid neo-coronary ostial stenosis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 10:467–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Vavuranakis M, Bush CA, Boudoula H (1995) Coronary artery fistulas in adults: incidence, angiographic characteristics and natural history. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 35:116–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Veselka J (2002) Intercoronary blood flow detected by color flow Doppler mapping is well-known marker for anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 15:259–263Google Scholar
  203. Vigneswaran WT, Campbell DN, Pappas G, Wiggins JW, Wolfe RW, Clarke DR (1989) Evolution of the management of anomalous left coronary artery: a new surgical approach. Ann Thorac Surg 48:560564Google Scholar
  204. Von Lüdinghausen M (2003) The clinical anatomy of coronary arteries. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 167:III-VIII–1-111Google Scholar
  205. Vouhé PR, Baillot-Vernant F, Trinquet F, Sidi D, de Geeter B, Khoury W, Leca F, Neveux JY (1987) Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in infants. Which operation? When? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 94:192–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Vouhé PR, Tamisier D, Sidi D, Vernant F, Mauriat P, Pouard P, Leca F (1992) Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: results of isolated aortic reimplantation. Ann Thorac Surg 54:621–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Wilson CL, Dlabal PW, McGuire SA (1979) Surgical treatment of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery: follow-up in teenagers and adults. Am Heart J 98:440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Wyatt JP, Goldenberg H (1948) Supernumerary aortic cusps with multiple fenestrations and with displacement of the left coronary orifice. Arch Pathol 45:784–786Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio F. Corno
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular SurgeryCentre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV)LausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations