Tricuspid atresia

  • Antonio F. Corno


Tricuspid atresia is the 19th most common congenital heart defect (0.7–1.6% of all congenital heart defects in clinical series, and up to 2.9% in autopsy series), but is the third most common cyanotic malformation presenting in the neonatal period, after transposition of the great arteries and tetralogy of Fallot. A slight male preponderance exists for tricuspid atresia, particularly in the presence of associated ventriculoarterial discordance.


Ventricular Septal Defect Pulmonary Blood Flow Single Ventricle Fontan Operation Pulmonary Artery Banding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acar P, Saliba Z, Sidi D, Kachaner J (2000) New insight into left ventricular function in tricuspid atresia after total cavopulmonary connection: a three-dimensional echocardiographic study. Cardiol Young 10:83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson RH, Wilkinson JL, Gerlis LM, Smith A, Becker AE (1979) Atresia of right atrioventricular orifice. Br Heart J 39:414Google Scholar
  3. Anderson RH, Becker AE, Macartney FJ, Shinebourne EA, Wilkinson JL, Tynan MJ (1979) Is “tricuspid atresia” a univentricular heart? Pediatr Cardiol 1:51–56Google Scholar
  4. Anderson RH, Rigby ML (1987) The morphologic heterogeneity of “tricuspid atresia”. Int J Cardiol 16:67–73Google Scholar
  5. Annecchino FP, Fontan F, Chauve A, Quaegebeur J (1980) Palliative reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract in tricuspid atresia: a report of 5 patients. Ann Thorac Surg 29:317–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashrafian H, Swan L (2002) The mechanism of formation of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations associated with the classic Glenn shunt (superior cavopulmonary anastomosis). Heart 88:639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Azzolina G, Eufrate S, Pensa P (1972) Tricuspid atresia: experience in surgical management with a modified cavopulmonary anastomosis. Thorax 27:111–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bargeron LM, Karp RB, Barcia A, Kirklin JW, Hunt D, Deverall PB (1972) Late deterioration of patients after superior vena cava to right pulmonary artery anastomosis. Am J Cardiol 30:211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bakuliev AN, Kolesnikov SA (1959) Anastomosis of the superior vena cava and pulmonary artery in the surgical treatment of certain congenital defects of the heart. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 37:693Google Scholar
  10. Bharati S, Lev M (1979) The concept of tricuspid atresia complex as distinct form that of the single ventricle complex. Pediatr Cardiol 1:57–62Google Scholar
  11. Binotto MA, Higuchi MdL, Aiello VD (2003) Left ventricular remodeling in hearts with tricuspid atresia: morphologic observations and possible basis for ventricular dysfunction after surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:1026–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bjork VO, Olin CL, Bjarke BB, Thoren CA (1979) Right atrial-right ventricular anastomosis for correction of tricuspid atresia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 77:452–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonnet D, Sidi D, Vouhé PR (2001) Absorbable pulmonary artery banding in tricuspid atresia. Ann Thorac Surg 71:360–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowman FO, Malm JR, Hayes CJ, Gersony WM (1978) Physiological approach to surgery for tricuspid atresia. Circulation 58(Suppl.I):83–86Google Scholar
  15. Bradley SM, Simsic JM, Mulvihill DM (2003) Hypoventilation improves oxygenation after bidirectional superior cavopulmonary connection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:1033–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bridges ND, Jonas RA, Mayer JE, Flanagan MF, Keane JF, Castaneda AR (1990) Bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis as interim palliation for high risk Fontan candidates. Circulation 82(Suppl IV:)70Google Scholar
  17. Bridges ND, Lock JE, Castaneda AR (1990) Baffle fenestration with subsequent transcatheter closure, modification of the Fontan operation for patients at increased risk. Circulation 82:1681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown JW (1936) Congenital tricuspid atresia. Arch Dis Child 11:275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bull C, de Leval MR, Stark J, Taylor JFN, Macartney FJ, McGoon DC (1983) Use of a subpulmonary ventricular chamber in the Fontan circulation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 85:21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Burkhart HM, Dearani JA, Mair DD, Warnes CA, Rowland CC, Schaff HV, Puga FJ, Danielson GK (2003) The modified Fontan procedure: early and late results in 132 adult patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125:1252–1259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Campbell M (1961) Tricuspid atresia and its prognosis with and without surgical treatment. Br Heart J 23:699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carlon CA, Mondini PG, de Marchi R (1951) Surgical treatment of some cardiovascular diseases. J Int Coll Surg 16:1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheung YF, Penny DJ, Redington AN (2000) Serial assessment of left ventricular diastolic function after Fontan procedure. Heart 83:420–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Choussat A, Fontan F, Besse P, Vallot F, Chauve A, Bricaud H (1977) Selection criteria for Fontan’s procedure. In: Anderson RH, Shinebourne EA (eds): Paediatric Cardiology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 559–566Google Scholar
  25. Cloutier A, Ash JM, Smallhorn JF, Williams WG, Trusler GA, Rowe RD, Rabinovitch M (1985) Abnormal distribution of pulmonary blood after the Glenn shunt or Fontan procedure: risk of development of arteriovenous fistulae. Circulation 72:471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Coles JG, Leung M, Kielmanowicz S, Freedom RM, Benson LN, Rabinovitch M, Sherret H, Dasmahapatra H, Trusler GA, McLaughlin PR (1988) Repair of tricuspid atresia: utility of right ventricular incorporation. Ann Thorac Surg 45:384–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Corno AF, Laks H, Davtyan H, Flynn WM, Chang P, Drinkwater DC (1988) The heterotopic right heart assist transplant. J Heart Transplant 7:183–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Corno AF, Carta MG, Giannico S (1989) Pulmonary artery banding through median sternotomy. Cl Res 37:91AGoogle Scholar
  29. Corno AF, Mazzera E, Marino B, Picardo S, Marcelletti C (1989) Bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 13:74AGoogle Scholar
  30. Corno AF, Giannico S (1993) Echo evaluation of total extracardiac right heart bypass. G Ital Ecogr Cardiovasc 3:1Google Scholar
  31. Corno AF, Bertucci C, Ranucci M, Rosti L (1994) Bidirectional superior vena cava to pulmonary artery anastomosis. Int Soc Cardiothorac Surg, 4th World Congr, Abstracts: 150Google Scholar
  32. Corno AF, Da Cruz E, Lal AB, Milella L, Wilson N (1998) “Controlled reoxygenation” for cyanotic patients. In: Imai Y, Momma K (eds) Proceedings of 2nd World Congress of PCCS. Futura Publishing Co., Armonk, NY, pp 1127–1129Google Scholar
  33. Corno AF (1996) Considerations on the cavopulmonary connection. Am Coll Cardiol Curr J Rev 5:38Google Scholar
  34. Corno AF, von Segesser LK (1999) Is hypothermia necessary in pediatric cardiac surgery? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 15:110–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Corno AF (2000) Surgery for congenital heart disease. Curr Opinion Cardiol 15:238–243Google Scholar
  36. Corno AF (2001) Palliative bilateral unidirectional Glenn shunts. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 9:141 (invited commentary)Google Scholar
  37. Corno AF, Horisberger J, Jegger D, von Segesser LK (2004) Right atrial surgery with unsnared inferior vena cava. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 26:219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Crupi GC, Locatelli G, Tiraboschi R, Villani M, de Tommasi M, Parenzan L (1980) Protein-loosing enteropathy after Fontan operation for tricuspid atresia (imperforate tricuspid valve). Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 28:359–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Deanfield JE, Tommassini G, Anderson RH, Macartney FJ (1982) Tricuspid atresia: analysis of coronary arteries distribution and ventricular morphology. Br Heart J 48:485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. de Leval MR, Kilner P, Gewillig M, Bull C, McGoon DC (1988) Total cavopulmonary connection: a logical alternative to atriopulmonary connection for complex Fontan operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 96:682–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. de Leval MR (1998) The Fontan circulation: what have we learned? What to expect? Pediatr Cardiol 19:316–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. di Carlo D, Williams WG, Freedom RM, Trusler GA, Rowe RD (1982) The role of cava-pulmonary (Glenn) anastomosis in the palliative treatment of congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 83:437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. di Carlo D, Marcelletti C, Nijveld A, Lubbers LJ, Becker AE (1983) The Fontan procedure in the absence of the interatrial septum. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 85:923–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dick M, Fyler DC, Nadas AS (1975) Tricuspid atresia: clinical course in 101 patients. Am J Cardiol 36:327–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. DiSessa TG, Child JS, Perloff JK, Wu L, Williams RG, Laks H, Friedman WF (1984) Systemic venous and pulmonary arterial flow patterns after Fontan’s procedure for tricuspid atresia or single ventricle. Circulation 70:898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Driscoll DJ, Offord KP, Feldt RH, Schaff HV, Puga FJ, Danielson GK (1992) Five-to fifteen-year follow-up after Fontan operation. Circulation 85:469–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Edwards JE, Burchell HB (1949) Congenital tricuspid atresia: a classification. Med Clin North Am 33:1177–1196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Eicken A, Fratz S, Gutfried C, Balling G, Schwaiger M, Lange R, Busch R, Hess J, Stern H (2003) Hearts late after Fontan operation have normal mass, normal volume, and reduced systolic function. A magnetic resonance imaging study. J Am Coll Cardiol 42:1061–1065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Facchini M, Guldenschub I, Turina J, Jenni R, Schalcher C, Attenhofer Jost CH (2000) Resolution of protein-losing enteropathy with standard high molecular heparin and urokinase after Fontan repair in a patient with tricuspid atresia. J Cardiovasc Surg 41:567–670Google Scholar
  50. Ferencz C, Rubin JD, McCarter RJ (1985) Congenital heart disease: prevalence at livebirth. The Baltimore-Washington infant study. Am J Epidemiol 121:31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fesslova V, Hunter S, Stark J, Taylor JF (1989) Long-term clinical outcome of patients with tricuspid atresia: “natural history”. J Cardiovasc Surg 30: 262–272Google Scholar
  52. Fontan F, Baudet E (1971) Surgical repair of tricuspid atresia. Thorax 26:240–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fontan F, Kirklin JW, Fernandez G, Costa F, Naftel DC, Tritto F, Blackstone EH (1990) Outcome after a “perfect” Fontan operation. Circulation 81:1520–1536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Franklin RC, Spieghalter NE, Sullivan ID, Anderson RH, Thoele DG, Shinebourne EA, Deanfield JE (1993) Tricuspid atresia presenting in infancy: survival and suitability for the Fontan operation. Circulation 87:427–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Fredriksen PM, Therrien J, Veldtman G, Warsi MA, Liu P, Siu S, Williams WG, Granton J, Webb GD (2001) Lung function and aerobic capacity in adult patients following modified Fontan procedure. Heart 85:295–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Freedom RM (1987) The dinosaur and banding of the main pulmonary trunk in the heart with functionally one ventricle and transposition of the great arteries: a saga of evolution and caution. J Am Coll Cardiol 10:427–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Freedom RM, Nykanen D, Benson LN (1998) The physiology of the bidirectional cavopulmonary connection. Ann Thorac Surg 66:664–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Freedom RM, Hamilton R, Yoo SH, Mikailian H, Benson L, McCrindle B, Justino H, Williams WG (2000) The Fontan procedure: cohort analysis and late complications. Cardiol Young 10:307–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fyler DC, Buckley LP, Hellenbrand WE, Cohn HE (1980) Report of the New England Regional Infant Care Program. Pediatrics 65(Suppl):375–461Google Scholar
  60. Gabriele OF (1970) Progressive obstruction of pulmonary blood flow in tricuspid atresia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 59:447–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gale AW, Danielson GK, McGoon DC, Wallace RB, Mair DD (1980) Fontan procedure for tricuspid atresia. Circulation 62:91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gallaher ME, Fyler DC (1967) Observations on changing hemodynamics in tricuspid atresia without associated transposition of the great vessels. Circulation 35:381–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gatzoulis MA, Munk MD, Williams WG, Webb GD (2000) Definitive palliation with cavopulmonary or aortopulmonary shunts for adults with single ventricle physiology. Heart 83:51–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gersbach Ph, Friedli B, Hahn C (1981) Treatment of tricuspid atresia with small pulmonary flow (type I-B) by surgical enlargement of the ventricular septal defect. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 29:82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ghai A, Harris L, Harrison DA, Webb GD, Siu SC (2001) Outcomes of late atrial tachyarrhythmias in adults after the Fontan operation. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:585–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Giannico S, Corno AF, Nava S, Marino B, Guccione P, Marcelletti C (1989) Inferior vena cava to pulmonary artery extracardiac conduit: echo-Doppler patterns of systemic venous flow. J Am Soc Echocard 2:218Google Scholar
  67. Giannico S, Corno AF, Marino B, Cicini MP, Gagliardi MG, Amodeo A, Picardo S, Marcelletti C (1992) Total extracardiac right heart bypass. Circulation 86(Suppl-II):110–117Google Scholar
  68. Glenn WWL (1958) Circulatory bypass of the right side of the heart. II. Shunt between superior vena cava and distal right pulmonary artery: report of clinical application. N Engl J Med 259:117–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Grabitz RG, Joffres MR, Collins-Nakai RL (1988) Congenital heart disease: incidence in the first year of life. The Alberta heritage pediatric cardiology program. Am J Epidemiol 128:381–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Harris JA, Francannet C, Pradat P, Robert E (2003) The epidemiology of cardiovascular defects, part 2: a study based on data from three large registries of congenital malformations. Pediatr Cardiol 24:222–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hopkins RA, Armstrong BE, Serwer GA, Peterson FJ, Oldham HW (1985) Physiological rationale for a bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt. A versatile complement to the Fontan principle. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 90:391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ilbawi MN, Idriss FS, DeLeon SY, Kucich VA, Muster AJ, Paul MH, Zales VR (1989) When should the hypoplastic right ventricle be used in a Fontan operation? An experimental and clinical correlation. Ann Thorac Surg 47:533–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Jahangiri M, Kreutzer J, Zurakowski D, Bacha E, Jonas RA (2000) Evaluation of hemostasis and coagulation factor abnormalities in patients undergoing the Fontan operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 120:778–782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jacobs ML, Rychik J, Rome JJ, Apostopoulou S, Pizarro C, Murphy JD, Norwood WI (1996) Early reduction of the volume work of the single ventricle: the hemi-Fontan operation. Ann Thorac Surg 62:456–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kirklin JK, Blackstone EH, Kirklin JW, Pacifico AD, Bargeron LM (1986) The Fontan operation: ventricular hypertrophy, age, and date of operation as risk factors. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 92:1049–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kopf GS, Laks H, Stansel HC, Hellenbrand WE, Kleinman CS, Talner NS (1990) Thirty year follow up of superior vena cava-pulmonary artery (Glenn) shunts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 100:662–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kreutzer GO, Galindez E, Bono H, de Palma C, Laura JP (1973) An operation for the correction of tricuspid atresia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 66:613–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lamberti JJ, Thilenius O, de la Fuente D, Lin CY, Arcilla R, Replogle RL (1976) Right atrial partition and right ventricular exclusion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 71:386–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lan YT, Chang RK, Laks H (2004) Outcome of patients with double-inlet left ventricle or tricuspid atresia with transposed great arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol 43:113–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lee CN, Schaff HV, Danielson GK, Puga FJ, Driscoll DJ (1986) Comparison of atriopulmonary versus atrioventricular connections for modified Fontan/Kreutzer repair of tricuspid valve atresia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 92:1038–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Mainwaring RD, Lamberti JJ, Moore JW (1996) The bidirectional Glenn and Fontan procedures-integrated management of the patient with functionally single ventricle. Cardiol Young 6:198–207Google Scholar
  82. Mair DD, Puga F J, Danielson GK (2001) The Fontan procedure for tricuspid atresia: early and late results of a 25 year experience with 216 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:933–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Marcelletti C, Corno AF, Losekoot TG, Olthof H, Schuller J, Bulterijs AHK, Becker AE (1980) Condotti extracardiaci: indicazioni, tecniche e risultati immediati. G Ital Cardiol 10:1041–1054Google Scholar
  84. Marcelletti C, Corno AF (1981) Extracardiac conduits: indications, techniques and early results. 33th Herhalings Cursus Kindergeneeskunde, Amsterdam (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  85. Marcelletti C, Corno AF, Giannico S, Marino B (1990) Inferior vena cava to pulmonary artery extracardiac conduit: a new form of right heart bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 100:228–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Marino B, Corno AF, Pasquini L, Guccione P, Carta MG, Ballerini L, De Simone G, Marcelletti C (1987) Indication for systemic-pulmonary artery shunts guided by two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography: criteria for patient selection. Ann Thorac Surg 44:495–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Marino B, Giannico S, Pasquini L, Corno AF, Picardo S (1988) Balloon-occlusion of the carotid artery for the angiographic visualization of Blalock-Taussig shunts and pulmonary arteries. Chest 94:267–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Mavroudis C, Deal BJ, Backer CL (2002) The beneficial effects of total cavopulmonary conversion and arrhythmia surgery for the failed Fontan. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Ann 5:12–24Google Scholar
  89. Mazzera E, Corno AF, Picardo S, Di Donato RM, Marino B, Costa D, Marcelletti C (1989) Bidirectional cavopulmonary shunts: clinical applications as staged or definitive palliation. Ann Thorac Surg 47:415–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mochizuki T, Ohtani T, Higashino H, Sugawara Y, Tsuda T, Sekiya M, Miyagawa M, Ohmoto K, Ikezoe J (2000) Tricuspid atresia with atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypoplasia demonstrated by multidetector computed tomography. Circulation 102:164–165Google Scholar
  91. Monagle P, Cochrane A, McCrindle B, Benson L, Williams WG (1998) Thromboembolic complications after Fontan procedures: the role of prophylactic anticoagulation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 115:493–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Pradat P, Francannet C, Harris JA, Robert E (2003) The epidemiology of cardiovascular defects, part 1: a study based on data from three large registries of congenital malformations. Pediatr Cardiol 24:195–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rao PS (1977) Natural history of the ventricular septal defect in tricuspid atresia and its surgical implications. Br Heart J 39:276–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rao PS (1983) Further observations on the spontaneous closure of physiologically advantageous ventricular septal defects in tricuspid atresia: surgical implications. Ann Thorac Surg 35:121–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rao PS (1990) Is the term “tricuspid atresia” appropriate? Am J Cardiol 66:1251–1254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rao PS (1992) Demographic features of tricuspid atresia. In: Rao PS (ed) Tricuspid atresia. Futura Publishing Co., Mt. Kisco, N.Y.Google Scholar
  97. Rao PS (2000) Tricuspid atresia. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2:507–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rashkind WJ (1982) Tricuspid atresia: a historical review. Pediatr Cardiol 2:85–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Reddy SC, Zuberbuhler JR (2003) Images in cardiovascular medicine. Himalayan P-waves in a patient with tricuspid atresia. Circulation 107:498Google Scholar
  100. Robicsek A, Temesvari A, Kadar RL (1956) A new method for the treatment of congenital heart disease associated with impaired pulmonary circulation. Acta Med Scand 154:151–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Ross DN, Somerville J (1973) Surgical correction of tricuspid atresia. Lancet 11:845–849Google Scholar
  102. Scholl FG, Alejos JC, Laks H (1997) Revision of the traditional atriopulmonary Fontan connection. Adv Card Surg 9:217–2327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Seliem M, Muster AJ, Paul MH, Benson DW (1989) Relation between preoperative left ventricular muscle mass and outcome of the Fontan procedure in patients with tricuspid atresia. J Am Coll Cardiol 14:750–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sittiwangkul R, Azakie A, van Arsdell GS, Williams WG, McCrindle BW (2004) Outcomes of tricuspid atresia in the Fontan era. Ann Thorac Surg 77:889–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Somerville J (1979) Congenital heart disease: changes in form and function. Br Heart J 41:1–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Tandon R, Edwards JE (1974) Tricuspid atresia: a re-evaluation and classification. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 67:530–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Thiene G, Anderson RH (1981) The clinical morphology of tricuspid atresia: atresia of the right atrioventricular valve. G Ital Cardiol 11:1845–1859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Tokunaga S, Kado H, Imoto Y, Masuda M, Shiokawa Y, Fukae K, Fusazaki N, Ishikawa S, Yasui H (2002) Total cavopulmonary connection with an extracardiac conduit: experience with 100 patients. Ann Thorac Surg 73:76–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Varma C, Warr MR, Hendler AL, Paul NS, Webb GD, Therrien J (2003) Prevalence of “silent” pulmonary emboli in adults after the Fontan operation. J Am Coll Cardiol 41:2252–2258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Veldtman GR, Nishimoto A, Siu S, Freeman M, Fredriksen PM, Gatzoulis MA, Williams WG, Webb GD (2001) The Fontan procedure in adults. Heart 86:330–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Vettukattil JJ (2002) Pathogenesis of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: role of hepatopulmonary interactions. Heart 88:561–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Yasuda K, Tomita H, Kimura K, Yagihara T, Echigo S (2002) Stenting pulmonary artery stenosis in an infant with tricuspid atresia: approach via the foramen ovale and ventricular septal defect using a long flexible sheath. Pediatr Int 44:690–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Walther T, Theune P, Sullivan I, de Leval MR (2003) Successful medical treatment of persistent pleural drainage after the Fontan operation. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2:348–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Warnes CA, Somerville J (1986) Tricuspid atresia in adolescents and adults: current state and late complications. Br Heart J 56:535–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Weinberg PW (1980) Anatomy of tricuspid atresia and its relevance to current forms of surgical therapy. Ann Thorac Surg 29:306–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Weinstein S, Cua C, Chan D, Davis JT (2003) Outcome of symptomatic patients undergoing extracardiac Fontan conversion and cryoablation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:529–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wenink ACG, Ottenkamp J (1987) Tricuspid atresia: microscopic findings in relation to “absence” of the atrioventricular connexion. Int J Cardiol 16:57–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Woods RK, Dyamenahalli U, Duncan BW, Rosenthal GL, Lupinetti FM (2003) Comparison of extracardiac Fontan techniques: pedicled pericardial tunnel versus conduit reconstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125:465–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Yeh T, Williams WG, McCrindle BW, Benson LN, Coles JG, van Arsdell GS, Webb GD, Freedom RM (1999) Equivalent survival following cavopulmonary shunt: with or without the Fontan procedure. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 16:111–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Yetman AT, Drummond-Webb J, Fiser WP, Schmitz ML, Imamura M, Ullah S, Gunselman RJ, Chipman CW, Johnson CE, van Devanter SH (2002) The extracardiac Fontan procedure without cardiopulmonary bypass technique and intermediate-term results. Ann Thorac Surg 74:S-1416–1421Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio F. Corno
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular SurgeryCentre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV)LausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations